tajikistanWhen Tajikistan was under the Soviet Union, the country’s agricultural production was controlled by directives and quotas from the government. Agronomists assigned to the collective farms (Kolkhoz and Sovkhoz) provided extension and advisory services. Following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the ensuing civil war (1992-93) the country extension services are being provided today by a range of service providers: the public sector represented by the State extension officers, who are attached to the Ministry of Agriculture or to the regional or provincial governments; the private sector through private advisory services run by both international and domestic non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private companies; Internal advice within collective Dehkon farms and non-privatized enterprises; and local forms of knowledge exchange and mutual consultation inside the Mahalla (Mandler, 2010).