kazakhstanKazakhstan is a country located both in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It is ninth largest country in the world in terms of its land area, and was the last among the Soviet republics to declare independence, in 1991. The capital of Kazakhstan is Astana, and the largest city Almaty. The population of Kazakhstan is estimated at 16.455 million (2011), of which 46% is rural and 54% is urban, and highly diverse in terms of ethnicities. The population density, however, is less than 15 people per square mile. Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces (oblıstar). The provinces are sub-divided into districts (awdandar). Almaty, Astana and Baikonur cities are not part of any province as they enjoy a special status. The country’s climate comprises warm summers and colder winters, and the precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions.


  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (August 2012)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson
  • The latest information on human resources in agricultural extension in Kazakhstan has been provided by Talgat Absattar, Head of Extension Department, JSC, KazAgroInnovation, Astana, Kazakhstan