mongoliaMongolia is a landlocked country of Central Asia, located between China and Russia. It is geographically spread over about 1.5 million square kilometers but has the lowest population density in the world. The country’s population is about 2.8 million people (2011), and its capital is Ulaanbaatar, where about 40 percent of the population lives. A lot of Mongolians lead a nomadic, herder style of life.

Administratively, Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces (aimags). The provinces are sub-divided into 329 districts (soums). The topography of Mongolia is varied. The southern part is covered by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western parts are covered by mountains. Mongolia’s climate comprises lengthy bitter cold winters, dry and hard summers, low precipitation, and drastic temperature fluctuations. The average temperature of the capital city remains around the freezing point throughout the year.


  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (February, 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson