Welcome to the Nutrition-Sensitive Extension Library!

The GFRAS Nutrition Working Group (NWG) collected and organized the materials in this library so that extensionists, program developers, researchers, and decision makers would be able to access existing resources related to agricultural extension and advisory services (AEAS), and nutrition. Growing attention to the need to make food systems more responsive to human nutrition has motivated related AEAS activities, yet NWG members identified that project-level materials were often hard to find. It is our hope that by making resources available in a searchable platform, individuals working in this area can build off of the experience of previous activities and effectively meet the needs and opportunities that they encounter.

Do you have a resource that you would like to make available in the library? Please submit it here!

About the Nutrition Working Group:

The NWG aims to bring global attention to leveraging RAS for improved nutrition by engaging relevant stakeholders: practitioners, researchers, donors, etc. It was initiated by GFRAS, the INGENAES project, and FAO in 2016.

Competency Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services

INGENAES , 2017

What types of skills, attitudes, and behaviors (SAB)1 are necessary to enable institutions to deliver gender- and nutrition-informed services? 

The SABs needed at the individual level require a supportive environment that enables individual extension workers to employ the SABs. Such a supportive environment consists of technically correct training, supportive supervision, and appropriate incentives to encourage SAB deployment by staff. 

Sustainable Undernutrition Reduction in Ethiopia: Training manual for Health and Agriculture Development Armies

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia , 2015

This training manual is designed for health and agriculture extension workers to train health and agriculture development armies as part of the Sustainable Undernutrition Reduction in Ethiopia (SURE) programme. It provides HDAs and ADAs the knowledge they need to improve infant and young child feeding and dietary diversity through the discussions they facilitate with their 1-5 and 1-30 community networks. 

What Every Extension Worker Should Know - Core Competency Handbook

Murari Suvedi,, Michael Kaplowitz , 2016

This handbook is designed as a reference manual for front-line extension staff to use in their day-to-day work. It offers a set of tools for effective communication, program planning and evaluation. It is meant to support and educate agricultural extension workers worldwide. The intended audiences of this handbook include: governmental agriculture, fisheries, natural resources and community development ministry officials; governmental and non-governmental extension district/regional managers; extension-related faculty and their students—preservice extension workers; and field-level agents, whether governmental, non-governmental or for-profit. We hope that this handbook will help advance efforts to empower and continue educating extension personnel through in-service training opportunities, continuing education programming and “train-the-trainer” programs. Such efforts may include targeting specific tools of interest to audiences and inviting scholars/practitioners to teach participants about them. 

Sustainable Nutrition Manual Part 3: Healthy Designs

WFP , 2016

This part of the manual brings parts 1 and 2 together with your own knowledge and experience. It will guide you to create a personalised design for achieving sustainable nutrition and a better future. You’ll draw maps and sketches as you make your plans to make the most of all the resources that you have now, as well as building up resources for the future.

Sustainable Nutrition Manual Part 2: Healthy Environments

WFP , 2016

This part of the manual is about Natural Systems and Sustainability. You will learn about the Nature Cycle and the Water Cycle and an understanding about Soil Fertility and the benefits of Diversity in Nature will develop. You will be introduced to Permaculture designs and sustainable living practices. You will find out about renewable and non-renewable resources and begin to understand the wider issues of sustainability. This book can be used in your homes, offices, schools, communities, farms and gardens. You can discuss the ideas in it with others so that eventually your whole nation designs and lives sustainably.

Sustainable Nutrition Manual Part 1: Healthy Humans

WFP , 2016

This manual is for people who eat, grow or buy food and who want to improve their own lives, their community and the environment that they live in. It has been written for, and by, people living in Malawi, but the ideas in it can be applied anywhere in the world. It is for all people, everywhere, but most of all it is for you. Many people in Malawi have used this manual with great results and, if you use these ideas, you will also be able to:

  • Improve your diet and health
  • Save money that was spent on food, medicines and chemicals
  • Double or triple yields and harvests (or even more!)
  • Reduce the amount of watering in gardens and orchards
  • Reduce the amount of work done on your land and in your home
  • Have healthier plants and animals
  • Reduce infertile and unproductive areas of land
  • Use free resources to improve soil and water in your area

Pastoralist Field Schools - Training of Facilitators Manual

FAO, Government of Zimbabwe , 2013

This PFS training Manual is designed for use by Master Trainers (MTs) during the training of facilitators course. Each lesson/topic is complete in itself detailing the preparations to be made, the materials to be kept handy, the core message to be communicated, and the methods that can be used in communicating the messages. A few sessions may require the presence of a technical person as co-facilitator, but the rest can be handled by any person who has been trained as a PFS Master Trainer.

Nutrition Education Training for Agriculture Extension Officers

IYCN , -

Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture Trainer Manual for Agriculture Development Agents

Save the Children , 2012

In order to impact on the nutritional outcomes, there is a need to focus on nutrition-sensitive agriculture. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture involves the incorporation of nutritional concerns into the design and implementation of agricultural policies, projects and investments, targeting nutritionally vulnerable groups with these investments and particularly focusing on women and increasing year-round access to diverse, nutrient-dense foods. Development agents (DAs) or agriculture extension workers (AEWs) are at the forefront of the support available to farmers for improved agricultural production and opportunities to increase income. This nutrition-sensitive agriculture training aims at building the knowledge and skill of DAs in nutrition-sensitive agriculture so that they can promote agricultural and related practices that have the potential to maximize nutritional benefits. 

Nutrition Program Planning and Supervision for Health and Agriculture Program Managers

Jhpiege, Save the Children , 2012

In order to impact on the nutritional outcomes, there is a need to focus on nutrition-sensitive agriculture. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture involves the design and adoption of cropping and farming systems (crops and animal) which can provide agricultural solutions to the prevailing nutritional problems. Development agents (DAs) or agriculture extension workers (AEWs) are at the forefront to support farmers for improved agricultural production and better income. This nutrition-sensitive agriculture training aims at building the knowledge and skill of DAs in nutrition-sensitive agriculture so that they can promote agricultural and other related practices that maximize nutritional benefits. 

Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture: Participant Manual for Agriculture Development Agents

Save the Children , 2012

In order to impact on the nutritional outcomes, there is a need to focus on nutrition-sensitive agriculture. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture involves the design and adoption of cropping and farming systems (crops and animal) which can provide agricultural solutions to the prevailing nutritional problems. Development agents (DAs) or agriculture extension workers (AEWs) are at the forefront to support farmers for improved agricultural production and better income. This nutrition-sensitive agriculture training aims at building the knowledge and skill of DAs in nutrition-sensitive agriculture so that they can promote agricultural and other related practices that maximize nutritional benefits. 

Projet conjoint de lutte contre la malnutrition chronique - Module sur l'approche champ école paysan

FAO, Government of Zimbabwe , 2014

Le travail de vulgarisation a été traditionnellement perçu par la recherche et les services de vulgarisation comme un mécanisme pour transférer les technologies aux fermiers. Cette approche, toutefois, s’est montrée inadéquate dans des situations complexes où les fermiers doivent fréquemment ajuster leurs activités à des changements de conditions agro climatiques (protection de la récolte, gestion des éléments nutritifs du sol, etc ……). Certains atouts technologiques, transmis via une approche de haut en bas, étaient souvent trop complexes, chers et mal adaptés aux besoins des fermiers. Les agents de vulgarisation se sont rendus compte que les fermiers n’étaient pas suffisamment impliqués dans l’identification des problèmes, la sélection et l’expérimentation d’options, et l’évaluation des solutions possibles. Avec la baisse du support gouvernemental au travail de vulgarisation traditionnel, il devint clair que des méthodes alternatives étaient nécessaires pour identifier les problèmes auxquels faisaient face les fermiers et pour disséminer les technologies appropriées.

Maximising the Nutritional Impact of Food Security and Livelihoods Interventions

Geraldine Le Cuziat, Hanna Mattinen , 2011

This manual aims to provide practical guidance to field workers in order to maximise the nutritional impact of food security & livelihoods (FSL) interventions. This requires the systematic use of a ‘nutrition lens’ at each step of the project cycle and a close collaboration between sectors. The manual has its roots in ACF International strategy 2010-20151 and the FSL strategic outline for 2011-20152, and embodies the mandate of the organisation to fight hunger and to centre its efforts on undernutrition. It is also in line with the current international movement to put maternal and child nutrition at the forefront of the agenda to address the complex crisis of undernutrition in the perspective of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Integrating Gender-Responsive & Nutrition-Sensitive Approaches When Working with Farmer Groups Engaged in Markets

Bhawna Thapa , 2016

This Training of Trainers Manual has been designed for use by government, private, and NGO extension providers and rural development practitioners who will be planning and implementing village-level agricultural interventions to strengthen their capacity to integrate gender and nutrition sensitivity for men and women farmer groups engaged in markets. This manual has been adapted to meet the needs of extension workers who train lead farmers and famer groups engaged in markets, as well as other actors in the agricultural value chains such as traders, AgroVets,1 and Community Business Facilitators (CBFs)2. While this manual has been adapted to the context of the Mid-west (Banke and Surkhet districts) and Far-west (Dadeldhura and Kailali districts) regions of Nepal,3 it can also be used as a guide for trainers to adapt and modify to their distinct cultural and agricultural contexts. 

Institutional Review and Planning Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services - Handouts

Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper , 2016

Taller Introductorio de la Integración de Género y Nutrición en Servicios de Extensión Agrícola

Jan Henderson, Kathleen Colverson , 2016

Una Guía para el Facilitador 

Esta guía del facilitador ha sido preparada para proveedores de servicio de extensión públicos, privados y ONG’s para así fortalecer sus capacidades para dirigir el tema de género en una manera transformadora e integrar la sensibilización del tema nutrición en el diseño y facilitación de talleres y capacitaciones dirigidos a agricultores y agricultoras. La guía es un modelo… un marco de referencia para que el facilitador lo adapte y modifique según su cultura y entorno agrícola, así como para que incremente la comprensión de la integración del género y la nutrición en los programas de extensión agrícola existente. 

 

Introductory Workshop on Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services - Facilitator's Guide

Jan Henderson, Kathleen Colverson , 2016

This facilitator’s guide has been prepared for public, private, and NGO extension providers to strengthen their capacity to address gender in a transformative manner and to integrate nutrition sensitivity in designing and facilitating workshops and trainings for men and women farmers. The guide is a template…a framework for facilitators to adapt and modify to their distinct cultural and agricultural settings as they increase their understanding of integrating gender and nutrition into existing agricultural extension programming. 

Institutional Review and Planning Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services - Workbook

Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper , 2016

Institutional Review and Planning Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services

Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper , 2016

This handbook provides a framework to help leaders of agencies providing extension services to examine their organizational mission (and the results implied by it), to analyze if and how the strategy of extension services helps them to accomplish their mission, and to confront key operational challenges faced in providing quality services. It is written as a workshop guide with practical steps to engage in this analysis. Of particular importance is how organizations can more fully integratae nutrition- and gender-responsive programming in their routine outreach efforts. 

Improving Nutrition with Agricultural Biodiversity

Bioversity International , 2011

While the positive relationship between biodiversity, dietary diversity and health seems clear but based on anecdotal evidence, there is a pressing need for this relationship to be confirmed based on empirical evidence. Solutions to addressing the growing challenge of global malnutrition depend on innovations in policy and practice. Historically, dietary interventions have focused primarily on protein and calories, later on minerals and vitamins, and most recently on functional and healthful properties of foods, such as anti-oxidants. In each of these cases, a focus on single components within foods has frequently neglected the foods themselves as they fit into a food system and socio-cultural context. One important component missing from many complementary strategies aimed at scaling up nutrition interventions is agricultural biodiversity, also called agrobiodiversity, which applies a food systems approach to intervention strategies.

Improving Nutrition Through Diversified Foods Production and Utilization

JHPIEGO/Save the Children , -

This course is designed to provide agriculture TVET students the knowledge skil and attitude to enable them apply basic principles of human nutrion, promote and assist diversified agricultural foods production and consumption, and work in collaboration to address maternal and child malnutrition. The course is based on the nutrition core competencies identified for mid-level agriculture students and the principles of nutrition sensitive agricultural interventions and multisectoral collaboration for nutrition. 

Integrated Homestead Food Production

IFAD , 2015

Over the past years, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) has been increasingly proactive in enabling smallholder farmers across the developing world to increase production and productivity, while concurrently enhancing their access to markets and integration into the value chains. However, experience shows that productivity and income increases do not automatically translate into improved nutritional status, especially among women, young people and children. Around three quarters of undernourished people live in rural areas of developing countries and are those producing most of the food. Addressing nutritional issues is, therefore, crucial to combating rural poverty, feeding the world in a sustainable manner and ensuring a healthier future for the younger generations. Integrated homestead food production (IHFP) is one of the most promising pro-poor strategies to address undernutrition and specific nutritional deficits such as micronutrient deficiencies (Box 1). In a number of programmes in rural areas of all the developing regions, homestead gardens have been providing access to nutritious fresh food to households with relatively limited economic and productive assets. More recently, smallholder fish-farming has also become an important source of animal protein for poor households in rural areas.

Homestead Gardening

Catholic Relief Services , 2008

Homestead Gardening, Catholic Relief Services, 2008

This manual is intended for use by food security, nutrition, and livelihood programmers and practitioners for improved household food production and income generation. It represents a compilation of techniques and lessons learned from homestead gardening programs successfully implemented through the Consortium for Southern Africa Food Emergency (C-SAFE) in Lesotho. Many of the techniques described have been developed over time in a variety of countries and programs, and have been adapted in semi-arid and mountain climates in the southern lowlands of Lesotho. The success of the methodology has prompted Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Caritas Lesotho, and other partners to apply homestead gardening activities in other programs, such as the Mountain Orphan and Vulnerable Children Empowerment (MOVE) project.

Healthy Harvest

FAO, Government of Zimbabwe , 2015

Healthy Harvest, FAO, Government of Zimbabwe, 2015

A Training Manual for Community Workers in Growing, Preparing and Processing Nutritious Food

In 2006, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in close collaboration with the Food and Nutrition Council (FNC), the Nutrition Unit in the Ministry of Health and Child Care and AGRITEX in the Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development, developed the Healthy Harvest training manual as a tool for training community-based extension workers in good nutrition, the growing, preparing and processing of nutritious food. The manual has been used, since its publication, to train hundreds of government and NGO extension workers.

Agriculture, Nutrition and Health Essentials for Non-specialist Development Professionals

Jody Harris , 2011

Most delegates at the 2020 Conference Leveraging Agriculture for Improved Nutrition and Health were expert or programmatically active in agriculture, nutrition, or health, but very few had specialist expertise that crossed sectoral boundaries. A major finding of the conference was that a key barrier to integration between agriculture, nutrition and health professionals was a lack of understanding of the sectors in which participants were not active, and lack of a common ‘language’ with which to debate. This brief report aims to outline basic concepts and definitions, tools and indicators, and common interventions used by each development sector, in order to provide a baseline level of knowledge and understanding on which to build dialogue and collaboration. 

Getting Started: Running a Junior Farmer Field and Life School

FAO , 2007

In response to the growing number of orphans and vulnerable children, the Gender, Equity and Rural Employment Division (ESW) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in close collaboration with the World Food Programme (WFP), has supported the development and implementation of Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools (JFFLS) in various countries of East and Southern Africa over the past several years. In the process, information and training materials have been developed, and reports produced. This JFFLS Getting Started! manual is the culmination of experiences of many individuals, communities, and organizations in Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, and is the result of a significant commitment by numerous organizations and individuals over the past few years.

Food and Nutrition Security Training Module

Government of Sierra Leone , -

Food and Nutrition Security Training Module, Government of Sierra Leone, -

This Food and Nutrition Security Training Module has been prepared to guide training in which facilitators will help participants in Farmer Field Schools to learn more about nutrition. The training can be run by one or two facilitators who have knowledge and experience in training, using active participatory methods. The training is divided into five topics which can be covered on separate training days. The course

includes information on food security; following the guidelines for good nutrition using locally available nutritious foods; food needs of family members with special food needs (pregnant and lactating women, infants and children); and personal and environmental hygiene and food safety.

Food and Nutrition Handbook for Extension Workers

MAAIF Uganda , 2015

The handbook will help extension workers to:

  • Apply the Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) at household and the community levels.
  • Appreciate the importance of agriculture in improving nutrition and the implications of malnutrition to agricultural productivity.
  • Mainstream nutrition in their work plans and routine activities.

Nutrition Handbook for Farmer Field Schools

Ministry of Agriculture Malawi , 2015

Nutrition Handbook for Farmer Field Schools, Ministry of Agriculture Malawi, 2015

This handbook is written so that participating farmers and their families can equitably address food production and nutrition issues for good health. FFS participants are encouraged to share what they learn with farmers in their community, schools and other community groups so their whole community benefits. Persons working in extension support services such as Agricultural Extension Development Officers (AEDOs), Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs), and other service areas (Community Development, Forestry, Environmental Health, Teacher Development Centres, schools, etc.) can use the handbook to support farming families to diversify food production and utilization for better nutrition.

Farmer Nutrition School Session Guide

SPRING/Bangladesh , 2015

Farmer Nutrition School Session Guide, SPRING/Bangladesh, 2015

Agricultural officers and DANIDA agricultural experts were involved in developing and field-testing this manual, which is a project of the GoB agricultural departments. This guide was developed to help community members (both women and men) and community groups start and improve their technical understanding in the following areas: 

1. Vegetable farming, by improving the method of selecting sites, species and crops, preparation of beds and planting pits for planting vegetables, and through successful farm management; 

2. Rearing local chickens through improved semi-scavenging methods applying the techniques of using the improved hazol (brooding nest), early separation of chicks from the broody hen, using two to four layers of hygienic poultry shed and rearing chicks in cages or the multi-layer poultry shed, and ensuring balanced feeding and bio-security; 

3. Fish farming in homestead base ponds using semi-intensive composite carp culture techniques incorporating the small indigenous species, which have high nutritional values. 

Farmer Field School: Implementation Guide

FAO, JICA, and KFS , 2011

This guide builds on the three previous versions of the Farm Forestry Field School (FFFS) manual prepared by the Intensified Social Forestry Project in Semi Arid Areas (ISFP) of Kenya. The manual was first developed in a workshop setting with the participation of Kenya Forest Service (KFS) staff members and JICA experts at the onset of the ISFP in 2004. FAO was involved in the workshop providing technical assistance to design the FFFS implementation process, facilitate the workshops and compile workshop outputs into the manual. The ISFP conducted the manual review twice through workshops. The KFS field staff members who carried out the FFFS presented the reality of the field and issues faced by farmers. Such experience sharing enriched the entire project implementation process and subsequently this publication. FAO was tasked to finalize the reviews and was asked to carry out an independent external review in 2007.

Facilitators’ Guide for Running a Farmer Field School

James R. Okoth, Winfred Nalyongo, Alexis Bonte , 2010

Facilitators’ Guide for Running a Farmer Field School, James R. Okoth, Winfred Nalyongo, Alexis Bonte, 2010

An adaptation for a post emergency recovery programme

This manual has been developed for use by facilitators. The reader should not treat it as a step-by-step guide. Rather, it is a useful resource meant to be read before starting the FFS and then used as a reference along the way. It is not subject specific but provides key operational aspects of the FFS process. Therefore, the facilitator should not use this manual as a stand alone resource, but should obtain the respective enterprise-specific content from other sources.

 

Training Guide: Community Workers

Guyon A. et al , 2015

Training Guide: Community Workers, Guyon A. et al, 2015

The Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) framework was originally developed with the support of USAID, WHO and UNICEF, and has been implemented across Africa and Asia since 1997.11 The full ENA framework is an approach for managing the advocacy, planning and delivery of an integrated package of interventions to reach near universal coverage (>90%) in order to achieve public health impact. It promotes a “nutrition through the life cycle” approach to deliver the right services and messages to the right person at the right time using all relevant program platforms. It provides an operational framework for reducing “missed opportunities” both within12 and outside the health system for delivering nutrition messages and services.

Reference Materials on Key Practices: Community Workers

Guyon A. et al , 2015

The Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) framework was originally developed with the support of USAID, WHO and UNICEF, and has been implemented across Africa and Asia since 1997.11 The full ENA framework is an approach for managing the advocacy, planning and delivery of an integrated package of interventions to reach near universal coverage (>90%) in order to achieve public health impact.

It promotes a “nutrition through the life cycle” approach to deliver the right services and messages to the right person at the right time using all relevant program platforms. It provides an operational framework for reducing “missed opportunities” both within12 and outside the health system for delivering nutrition messages and services.

Reference Manual: Health Workers and Nutrition Managers

Guyon A. et al , 2013

The Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) framework was originally developed with the support of USAID, WHO and UNICEF, and has been implemented across Africa and Asia since 1997.11 The full ENA framework is an approach for managing the advocacy, planning and delivery of an integrated package of interventions to reach near universal coverage (>90%) in order to achieve public health impact.

It promotes a “nutrition through the life cycle” approach to deliver the right services and messages to the right person at the right time using all relevant program platforms. It provides an operational framework for reducing “missed opportunities” both within12 and outside the health system for delivering nutrition messages and services.

Designing for Behavior Change For Agriculture, Natural Resource Management, Health and Nutrition

Food Security and Nutrition Network Social and Behavioral Change Task Force , 2013

Designing for Behavior Change For Agriculture, Natural Resource Management, Health and Nutrition, Food Security and Nutrition Network Social and Behavioral Change Task Force., 2013

The Designing for Behavior Change (DBC) Curriculum responds to community development program managers’ and planners’ need for a practical behavioral framework that strategically aids them in planning for maximum effectiveness. The curriculum is built on the original BEHAVE Framework, developed by AED and expanded on by members of CORE Group's Social and Behavior Change (SBC) Working Group and the Food Security and Nutrition Network SBC Task Force. The curriculum trains participants to apply the DBC Framework to improve development programming. 

Applied Basic Agri-nutrition Resource Toolkit for Trainers

Republic of Kenya , 2013

የተቀና  የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች ማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና - ሞዱል ሁለት፡ የሠልጣኞች ማኑዋል

የኢትዮጵያ ፌደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ መንግስት የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር , 2014

የተቀና  የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች ማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና - ሞዱል ሁለት፡ የሠልጣኞች ማኑዋል, የኢትዮጵያ ፌደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ መንግስት የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር, 2004

ይህ የሠልጣኞች መመሪያ የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞችን የ10 ቀናት የተቀናጀ የማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና ዝርዝር ያካትታል፡፡ መመሪያው የስልጠናውን ክፍለ ትምህርት ዕቅዶች፣ የሠልጣኞችን ማስታወሻ ነጥቦች፣ የመስክ አተገባበር መመሪያዎችንና ቁልፍ መልዕክቶችን ይዟል፡፡ ስልጠናው የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች በተዋረድ የማህበረሰብ አቀፍ የጤና መልዕክተኞችን እንዲያሰለጥኑ ጭምር ታስቦ የተዘጋጀ ነው፡፡ 

የተቀና  ማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና ለጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች

የኢትዮጵያ ፌደራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ መንግስት የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር , 2004

የተቀና  ማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና ለጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች - ሞዱል ሁለት፡ የአሠልጣኞች መመሪያ, የኢትዮጵያ ፌደራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ መንግስት የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር, 2004

ይህ የአሠልጣኞች መመሪያ የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞችን የ10 ቀናት የተቀናጀ የማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና ዝርዝር ያካትታል፡፡ መመሪያው የስልጠናውን ክፍለ ጊዜ ዕቅዶች፣ የአሰልጣኞችን ማስታወሻ ነጥቦች፣ የመስክ አተገባበር መመሪያዎችንና ቁልፍ መልዕክቶችን ይዟል፡፡ ሥልጠናው የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች በተዋረድ የማህበረሰብ አቀፍ የጤና መልዕክተኞችን እንዲያሰለጥኑ ጭምር ታስቦ የተዘጋጀ ነው፡፡ 

Linking Agriculture and Nutrition for Healthy and Strong Ethiopian Families

Hawassa University , 2015

Agriculture Development Agents Facilitator's Manual

This facilitators manual is developed for the use of the Master Trainers (MT) when training agricultural development agents (DA’s) on the importance of the contribution of the agricultural sector to improved nutritional outcomes to build healthy and strong Ethiopian families.

Applied Basic Agri-nutrition Resource Manual for Trainers

Republic of KenyaVersion , 2013

The Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, in collaboration with nutrition partners, launched the SUN at a symposium in November 2012. This initiative aligns well with the Nutrition Action Plan recently drafted by USAID-KHCP that is being rolled out in phases across all Feed the Future (FTF) counties. It relies on effective collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation by utilizing the services of the personnel within the existing structure to provide practical training on household nutrition and dietary diversity with communities upported by the project. The collaboration with the two ministries will draw from their existing expertise, the community strategy, and the country nutrition focus, and will utilize and strengthen already existing structures.

Nutrition Training Manual for Health and Agriculture Workers at Community Level in Ethiopia

Africa Rising , 2016

Purpose of this manual 

  • To equip health and agriculture workers at communities level with the knowledge, attitude and communication skills. 
  • Create awareness on nutrition component of agriculture-nutrition interventions that provides appropriate services, including well-tailored and comprehensive nutrition education, to address specific, local malnutrition issues. 
  • Describe the type of interventions that promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture and how to integrate them into their daily activities. 
  • Use the tools to counsel farmers on nutrition-sensitive agricultural interventions. 

Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture Farmer Training

ACDIVOCA , 2001

Training-of-Trainers Facilitator's Guide

This three-day workshop on nutrition aims to increase participants’ nutrition knowledge in the context of agricultural training. The main purpose is to promote adoption of key nutritional messages among farmers through the use of appropriate analogies. As such, this workshop trains lead farmers (LF) through a training-of-trainers (ToT) format. After the ToT, LFs will train other farmers who are members of their cooperatives on key nutrition topics. 

A Practical Nutrtion Guide for Community Development Workers

Ruth Tshin , 2013

An "agriculutre-nutrition gap" exists due to agricultrual development primarily focusing on poverty alleviation and not focusing on producing adequate nutrients to improve the household nutrition. Community development workgers have seen agricultural yields and household incomes increase but high malnutrition is still prevalent in communities where they work (Jayakumar 2014). Women play a key role in maintaining and improving household practices leading to good helath. Additionally, they need adequate groth-nutrients like protein, zinc, sulfur, and magnesium from early childhood onwards and from pregnancy to their children's early childhood. A well-nourished mother can then pass on health benefits to her children particularly in the first 1000 days of life, where lack of nutrition will significally impact a child's ability to fight infections and develop cognitive abilites into their adulthood.

Nutritional Impact Assessment Tool - Guidance

IYCN , 2011

The PATH-led Infant & Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project has developed the Nutritional Impact Assessment Tool for project designers to use during the design phase of agricultural projects. Much as environmental and gender impact assessments are now standard practice in project planning to prompt consideration of the project’s likely impacts in those areas, a nutritional impact assessment prompts consideration of a project’s impacts on the nutrition of vulnerable groups.

Nutritional Impact Assessment Tool

IYCN , 2011

This tool assists agriculture project designers in assessing an agriculture project’s likely impacts on the nutrition of vulnerable groups. Please refer to the accompanying Nutritional Impact Assessment Tool Guidance for instructions on how to use the tool.

Global Review of Good Agricultural Extension and Advisory Service Practices

Burton E. Swanson , 2008

The perceived lack of success of public agricultural extension systems in many countries has resulted in new approaches being tried in reorganizing extension services. In some countries, such as India and China, public extension systems have been decentralized to the district/county level and these public extension systems are now pursuing a more market-driven approach. In other countries, different models have been tried, involving both private-sector firms and civil society organizations (CSOs), in an attempt to find more effective approaches of providing basic extension services. Also, in some countries, there have been attempts to shift more of the cost of extension services to the farmers themselves, with limited success. This paper provides a framework for analyzing the success or failure of different approaches within the agricultural development process in providing particular extension services to different categories of farmers.

Whose Job Is It? Integrating Agriculture and Nutrition in Public Sector Agricultural Extension Services

Vickie A. Sigman , 2015

Nutrition-sensitive agriculture (Box 1) has the attention and is increasingly promoted by national governments and the global development community. This is exemplified in Feed the Future (FTF), the U.S. Government’s initiative to sustainably reduce global hunger and poverty. It is embodied in FTF’s twin objectives: inclusive agricultural sector growth and improved nutritional status especially of women and children. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture is a means towards achieving these objectives (Ruel, Alderman, & the Maternal Child and Nutrition Study Group, 2013).

Improving the Nutritional Impact of Extension Services in Rural Africa

Gustaaf P. Sevenhuysen , 1985

Experience in nutrition interventions points to several design characteristics of field programmes which could improve their effectiveness. Regular government extension services have the potential to reach large numbers of people, yet staff will require additional training to respond to the changing demands of field work. A new approach to training such staff has been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization. The approach provides staff with information and managerial skills that are common to all extension work. The practical examples used to introduce these techniques illustrate nutritional problems that fieldworkers face and give a measure of confidence in finding solutions. Training materials based on this approach are presently used by several governments.

Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture What Have We Learned and Where Do We Go from Here?

Marie T. Ruel, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Mysbah Balagamwala , 2017

Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture What Have We Learned and Where Do We Go from Here?, Marie T. Ruel, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Mysbah Balagamwala, 2017

A growing number of governments, donor agencies, and development organizations are committed to supporting nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) to achieve their development goals. Although consensus exists on pathways through which agriculture may influence nutrition-related outcomes, empirical evidence on agriculture’s contribution to nutrition and how it can be enhanced is still weak. This paper reviews recent empirical evidence (since 2014), including findings from impact evaluations of a variety of NSA programs using experimental designs as well as observational studies that document linkages between agriculture, women’s empowerment, and nutrition. It summarizes existing knowledge regarding not only impacts but also pathways, mechanisms, and contextual factors that affect where and how agriculture may improve nutrition outcomes. The paper concludes with reflections on implications for agricultural programs, policies, and investments, and highlights future research priorities.

Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services: Frontline Contributors to the Nutrition Decade

Edye Kuyper, Laina Schneider , 2016

There is growing interest in better leveraging agricultural extension and advisory services (AEAS) for nutrition-sensitive agriculture (Fanzo et al. 2015; GFRAS 2016a). Pluralistic AEAS (defined in Box 1) includes public, non-governmental organization (NGO), and private sector entities that regularly interact with millions of farmers. For readers who are more familiar with health programming, AEAS play a role similar to community health workers (CHWs). It should be noted, however, that AEAS typically engage farming households with the potential to produce a marketable surplus (USAID 2016), whereas CHWs focus on populations most vulnerable to poor health. Enlisting AEAS as vital partners in the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition is essential to realizing the Sustainable Development Goals and 2025 World Health Assembly targets. They are the foot soldiers positioned to play a key role in realizing healthier food systems. Their specific contributions, however, must build on their core competencies and will only be realized when there is alignment between programmatic, market and policy incentives.

Conceptualizing the Contribution of Agricultural Extension Services to Nutrition

Edye Kuyper, Laina Schneider , 2016

There is growing global interest in better leveraging Agricultural Extension Services (AES) as a foundation for food and nutrition security. Pluralistic AES (defined in Box 1) consist of rural, agriculturally focused extension and advisory services implemented by public, NGO, and private-sector entities. They reach millions of farmers and represent largely untapped potential for influencing production and consumption decisions which could, in turn, affect the health and nutrition status of populations, particularly in rural areas. Their specific contributions, however, are only beginning to be articulated and evaluated.

This discussion paper addresses the specific contribution that AES can make to food and nutrition security in a way that is consistent with AES’s primary functions. It is particularly focused on the scope of the INGENAES project and the context of the Feed the Future countries within which the project operates.

Sierra Leone: Landscape Analysis

Festus O. Amadu, Colby Silvert, Cortney Eisenmann, Katy Mosiman, and Ruiting Liang , 2017

Sierra Leone: Landscape Analysis, Festus O. Amadu, Colby Silvert, Cortney Eisenmann, Katy Mosiman, and Ruiting Liang, 2017

This analysis was prepared under the framework of the Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services (INGENAES) project is funded through the Bureau for Food Security (BFS) of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to support the United States Government Global Feed the Future (FTF) Initiative1. FTF strives to increase agricultural productivity and the incomes of both men and women in rural areas who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods.

Uganda: Landscape Analysis

Michael Wallace , 2016

Uganda: Landscape Analysis, Michael Wallace, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Uganda’s agriculture, a review of the country’s extension system, and information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in Uganda with a special focus on rural areas. In addition, it summarizes the country’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and reviews several on-going projects related to agricultural extension, gender and nutrition by USAID and other technical and financial partners in the country.

Tanzania: Landscape Analysis

Lacey Harris-Coble , 2016

Tanzania: Landscape Analysis, Lacey Harris-Coble, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Tanzania’s agriculture and the status of country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. It summarizes Tanzania’s current agricultural and nutrition policy, and provides a summary of several on-going projects by the United States Government (USG) and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Senegal: Landscape Analysis

Elizabeth Poulsen , 2015

Senegal: Landscape Analysis, Elizabeth Poulsen, 2015

This landscape study provides an overview of agriculture in Senegal as well as the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. In addition, it summarizes Senegal’s current agriculture and nutrition policy, and it reviews several on-going projects by the U.S. government and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, gender, and nutrition.

Rwanda: Landscape Analysis

Kristen J. Augustine , 2016

Rwanda: Landscape Analysis, Kristen J. Augustine, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of issues that may influence how INGENAES’ project objectives are implemented in Rwanda. All of rural Rwanda and 27 out of 30 districts in the country, are included in Feed the Future’s Zone of Influence, excluding only three districts in Kigali City (Feed the Future, 2011). This report starts by providing general information on the historical and development contexts, geography, and demographics of the country. It next delves into the gender dynamics impacting Rwandans and the current health and nutrition status for the nation. A summary of issues that are currently impacting Rwandan’s land rights, including recent laws that impact greatly on agricultural capacity, leads into an overview of the agricultural sector and how women in particular are faring. This is followed by information pertaining to recent reforms to how extension information and services are delivered as well as a number of gaps that still remain. The narrative concludes with a description of Feed the Future’s Multi-Year Strategy and a summary of USAID’s Country Development Cooperation Strategy.

Mozambique: Landscape Analysis

Hans Goertz , 2016

This report is designed as a reference document to assist the kick-off teams in launching exploratory activities in the target country in response to the USAID Feed the Future mission’s invitation. This report provides an overview of the current status of Mozambique’s agriculture as well as the country’s status in relation to the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues. The report examines and summarizes Mozambique’s agricultural and nutrition policy, and USAID’s strategic goals and objectives for the country. Since democratic elections in 1992, Mozambique has been a focal point for governance and development initiatives. This report provides a summary of on-going agricultural projects by the U.S. Government and other donors in the country.

Mali: Landscape Analysis

Sarah Anne Ward , 2016

Mali: Landscape Analysis, Sarah Anne Ward, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Mali’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. The report summarizes Mali’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and details the strategic goals and objectives of USAID and other donors in the country. The report provides a summary of the on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Malawi: Landscape Analysis

Elizabeth Poulsen , 2016

Malawi: Landscape Analysis, Elizabeth Poulsen, 2016

This landscape analysis is an overview of key gender, nutrition and agricultural extension issues in Malawi. It contributes to the knowledge base of Feed the Future countries for both the INGENAES team and country extension and development practitioners. It begins with an overview of Malawian geography, culture, and poverty status. It then provides a description of the Malawian agricultural sector, the national agriculture strategy, and women’s involvement in agriculture; food security and nutrition issues in the country; and the national nutrition strategy. In addition, the analysis provides details on the Feed the Future approach in Malawi and how USAID’s country strategy supports Feed the Future activities. The final section of the report includes descriptions of various projects that are relevant to the INGENAES program.

Liberia: Landscape Analysis

Austin Alcorn Peterson , 2016

Liberia: Landscape Analysis, Austin Alcorn Peterson, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Liberia’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. It summarizes Liberia’s current agricultural and nutrition policy. This report provides a summary of several on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Kenya: Landscape Analysis

Elizabeth PoulsenVersion , 2016

Kenya: Landscape Analysis, Elizabeth Poulsen, 2016

This analysis begins with an overview of Kenyan geography, culture, and poverty status. It then provides a description of the Kenyan agricultural sector, the national agriculture strategy, and women’s involvement in agriculture; food security and nutrition issues in the country; and the national nutrition strategy. In addition, the landscape analysis provides details on the Feed the Future approach in Kenya and how USAID’s country strategy supports Feed the Future and potentially INGENAES. The final section of the report includes descriptions of various projects that are relevant to INGENAES.

Honduras: Landscape Analysis

Rebecca J. Williams , 2016

Honduras: Landscape Analysis, Rebecca J. Williams, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Honduras’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also contains information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. The report summarizes Honduras’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and details the strategic goals and objectives of USAID and other donors in the country. The report provides a summary of the on-going projects by the United States Government (USG) and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Haiti: Landscape Analysis

Hans Goertz , 2016

Haiti: Landscape Analysis, Hans Goertz, 2016

This landscape analysis provides an overview of the current status of Haiti’s agriculture as well as the country’s status in relation to the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues. It contributes to the knowledge base of Feed the Future countries for both the INGENAES team and country extension and development practitioners. The report examines and summarizes Haiti’s agricultural and nutrition policy, and USAID’s strategic goals and objectives for the country. Since the 2010 earthquake, Haiti has been a focal point for development and reconstruction initiatives. This report provides a summary of on-going agricultural projects by the U.S. Government and other donors in the country.

Guatemala: Landscape Analysis

Kristen J. AugustineVersion: , 2016

Guatemala: Landscape Analysis, Kristen J. Augustine, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of issues related to INGENAES’ project objectives in Guatemala. The report gives a summary of country-wide issues but focuses particular attention on the Western Highlands where indigenous populations are the majority, and where Feed the Future is concentrating efforts under the umbrella of the USAID-led Western Highlands Integrated Program (WHIP). This report pays specific attention to the indigenous population of the Western Highlands and to the women of those communities. A 2013 baseline survey was conducted in the WHIP Zone of Influence (ZOI) to help determine the impact of WHIP projects. The data collected is particularly relevant to those intending to work in the Western Highlands and, as such, is frequently referenced in this report.

Ghana: Landscape Analysis

Antionette McFarlane , 2016

Ghana: Landscape Analysis, Antionette McFarlane, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Ghana’s agriculture and the status of country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. It summarizes Ghana’s current agricultural and nutrition policy. This report provides a summary of several on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Ethiopia: Landscape Analysis

Elizabeth Poulsen, July Dayane Nelson , 2016

Ethiopia: Landscape Analysis, Elizabeth Poulsen, July Dayane Nelson, 2016

The Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services (INGENAES) project is funded through the Bureau for Food Security of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to support the Presidential Feed the Future Initiative, which strives to increase agricultural productivity and the incomes of both men and women in rural areas who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. This report is a reference document that aims to provide an overview of the current status of Ethiopia’s agriculture as well as the country’s status in relation to the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues. The report summarizes Ethiopia’s agricultural, gender, and nutrition policy, and USAID’s strategic goals and objectives for the country in these areas.

Burundi: Landscape Analysis

Nargiza S. Ludgate, Joyous S. Tata , 2015

Burundi: Landscape Analysis, Nargiza S. Ludgate, Joyous S. Tata, 2015

This landscape study provides an overview of Burundi’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. The report summarizes Burundi’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and details the strategic goals and objectives of USAID and other donors in the country. Finally, since the end of the 1993-2005 war, Burundi hosted a number of United States Government (USG) funded projects aimed at rebuilding the war-devastated nation and economy. The report provides a summary of the on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Nepal: Landscape Analysis

Bhawna Thapa , 2015

Nepal: Landscape Analysis, Bhawna Thapa, 2015

This landscape study provides an overview of Nepal’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. It summarizes Nepal’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and details the strategic goals and objectives of USAID and other donors in the country. This report provides a summary of on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Cambodia: Landscape Analysis

Katie McNamara , 2016

Cambodia: Landscape Analysis, Katie McNamara, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of agriculture in Cambodia as well as the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. In addition, it summarizes Cambodia’s current agriculture and nutrition policy, and it also reviews several on-going projects by the U.S. government and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, gender, and nutrition.

Using Agriculture Extension Agents to Promote Nutrition: A Process Review of Three Feed the Future Activities in Ethiopia

Aakesson, A., V. Pinga, S. Titus , 2014

In March and April 2014 , the Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project conducted a rapid, participatory process review to document experience and learning from activities that are utilizing a common strategy to promote nutrition through Feed the Future agriculture investments in Ethiopia. This strategy involves training agriculture development agents (DAs) to deliver nutrition social and behavior change (SBC) messages and interventions to support the integration of nutrition and agriculture. This review examined the experience of three Feed the Future activities: Empowering New Generations to Improve Nutrition and Economic Opportunities (ENGINE), Agricultural Growth Program – Agribusiness and Market Development Project (AGP-AMDe), and Pastoralist Resiliency Improvement and Market Expansion (PRIME). Capturing the process in Ethiopia contributes to the Feed the Future learning agenda and may also help refine agriculture-nutrition approaches in current and future activities around the world.

Integration of Nutrition Into Extension and Advisory Services: A Synthesis of Experiences, Lessons, and Recommendations

FAO , 2017

The need for nutrition-sensitive agriculture is well recognized and of growing interest to global development players. Extension and advisory services (EAS), with their established infrastructure, provide a unique opportunity for nutrition interventions to be implemented at scale with significant reach.  To assess current integration of nutrition in EAS, document training provided to EAS agents, and identify challenges and opportunities for the integration of nutrition.  Methods: A mixed methodology was used, which included a systematic literature review covering the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Agris, Google Scholar, Econlit, and IBSS. In addition, online surveys and semistructured key informant interviews with stakeholders were performed. Data were collected between December 2012 and June 2013.

Integration of Nutrition in Agriculture Extension Services in Africa

Jessica Fanzo et al , 2015

Linking agricultural extension and advisory service (EAS) with participatory learning and action on nutrition and health has the potential to improve the sustainability and impact of food and agricultural programmes on nutrition and household food security. Due to their established structure/network and their greater reach to the community of whom they often already have the trust, agricultural extension and advisory workers (EAW) are probably the best resource to help achieve nutrition security through nutrition education to farmers. In  order to do so, the extension workers must receive nutrition and nutrition education training. This desk review aims at mapping how nutrition is currently being mainstreamed into agricultural EAS preOservice and inOservice training and to give recommendation on the way forward.

Extension Options for Better Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction: A Selected Review 2012–2015

Kristin Davis, Steven Franzel, David J. Spielman , 2016

The context in which extension operates has changed dramatically in recent decades. As a result, there is a renewed interest in extension and an interest in changing traditional approaches to extension. With that renewed interest comes demand for information and analysis. 

The overall goal of this report is to provide up-to-date information on key topics related to extension knowledge and perspectives and to enable decision makers to identify areas where (1) further evidence on extension through commissioned research is needed, and (2) extension investment practices should be reconsidered. 

Assessment of Agricultural Extension, Nutrition Education, and Integrated Agriculture-nutrition Extension Services in the Feed the Future Districts in Malawi

Vickie Sigman, Valerie Rhoe, John Peters, Theresa Banda, Grace Malindi , 2014

In April 2014, at the invitation of USAID/Malawi, a MEAS team conducted an assessment of agricultural extension, nutrition education, and integrated agriculture-nutrition programs and systems in Malawi. An overarching purpose of the assessment is to investigate these programs and systems across public, private, and civil society sector providers with the aim of informing the design of an activity that will strengthen delivery of extension and nutrition outreach services in the seven Feed the Future focus districts in a coordinated and integrated manner. 

The assessment methodology includes literature review, interviews and field visits, and an assessment review workshop. The team reviewed agriculture extension, nutrition, and integrated programming literature; carried-out over 55 individual and group interviews; and made field trips to three districts. The review workshop, in which over 25 stakeholders from across sectors participated, was held to present preliminary findings of the assessment and obtain further input from stakeholders. 

Agricultural Extension Approaches Being Implemented in Ghana

Directorate of Agricultural Extension Services of Ghana , -

Agricultural Extension Approaches Being Implemented in Ghana, Directorate of Agricultural Extension Services of Ghana, -

In Ghana, majority (60%) of the population lives in rural areas and depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihood and survival. Agriculture plays an important role in economic growth, food security, poverty reduction, livelihoods, rural development and the environment (Green et al., 2005). Growth in the agricultural sector stimulates higher rates of growth in the economy through forward linkage activities such as processing and transportation, and backward linkages like the provision of services to the sector, with further growth spurred as a result of spending incomes earned from all these productive activities (MoFA, 2003; UN, 2008; Winter-Nelson and Aggrey-Fynn, 2008).

A Review of the Effectiveness of Agriculture Interventions in Improving Nutrition Outcomes

Peter R Berti, Julia Krasevec, Sian FitzGerald , 2008

Objectives: To review the impact of agriculture interventions on nutritional status in participating households, and to analyse the characteristics of interventions that improved nutrition outcomes. Design: We identified and reviewed reports describing 30 agriculture interventions that measured impact on nutritional status. The interventions reviewed included home gardening, livestock, mixed garden and livestock, cash cropping, and irrigation. We examined the reports for the scientific quality of the research design and treatment of the data.We also assessed whether the projects invested in five types of ‘capital’ (physical, natural, financial, human and social) as defined in the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, a conceptual map of major factors that affect people’s livelihoods.

A Global Survey and Review of Farmer Field School Experiences

Arnoud Braun, Janice Jiggins, Niels Röling, Henk van den Berg, Paul Snijders , 2006

A Global Survey and Review of Farmer Field School Experiences, Arnoud Braun, Janice Jiggins, Niels Röling, Henk van den Berg, Paul Snijders, 2006

Farmer Field Schools evolved initially to address the challenge of ecological heterogeneity and local specificity in pest management, by supporting ecologically-informed decision-making by farmers that would allow them to reduce pesticide use, improve crop management and secure better profit margins. 

Classic FFSs rely for their effects on the development of learner-centred curricula for experiential learning that takes place in the field, allowing producers to observe, measure, analyse, assess and interpret key agro-ecosystem relationships as the basis for making informed management decisions. The adult education concepts and principles that underlie the design of curricula and of the learning cycle process have proven robust in all areas where FFSs have been developed. 

Rural Agricultural Development Innovation for Food and Nutrition Security: Findings from a Study in Tanzania

Jens M. Vesterager et.al. , 2013

Sub-Saharan Africa remains the world’s most food-insecure region in spite of its abundant agricultural potential. In an attempt to contribute towards overcoming this problem, an agricultural development approach known as RIPAT (Rural Initiatives for Participatory Agricultural Transformation) has been developed over the period since 2006 through a series of projects in northern Tanzania. 

It has for decades been anticipated by development actors that pro-poor agricultural development interventions would be the direct route to improved nutrition among smallholder farm families. However, it is difficult to find evidence that documents such linkage – partly because of poor quality evaluations, but also because it has been realised that agricultural development interventions must be designed to a much larger extent with a nutritional lens and must take into account what types of agricultural component can lead to improved nutrition. We provide research evidence of improved rural food and nutrition security following the application of the RIPAT approach. 

Linking Agriculture and Nutrition Education to Improve Infant and Young Child Feeding: Lessons for Future Programmes

Ellen Muehlhoff1 et.al. , 2016

Agriculture and food systems play a central role in nutrition by supplying nutritious, healthy and affordable foods. When integrated with nutrition education for behaviour change, agricultural interventions that supply diverse affordable foods from all food groups have great scope for improving young child and family diets. In 2014, process reviews were conducted in Cambodia and Malawi of food security projects that provided agricultural support and community‐based nutrition education on improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF). In both countries, household visits were carried outwithmothers/caregivers, and interviews and FocusGroupDiscussions (FGDs)were conductedwith purposively selected project stakeholders (53 in Cambodia, 170 inMalawi), including government staff from the agriculture and health sectors. Results highlight that adoption of improved IYCF practices was facilitated by participation in nutrition education and practical cooking sessions, and supportive family and community structures. Barriers faced by families and caregivers were identified, such as women's workload and lack of access to high quality foods, namely fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and animal source foods. Implementation challenges regarding coordination of cross‐sectoral targeting strategies and capacities of extension services to sustain community‐ based IYCF nutrition education need to be addressed to improve programme effectiveness and impact. The project lessons from Cambodia and Malawi are useful for integrated agriculture IYCF nutrition education programmes to help ensure better young child nutrition outcomes.

Integrating Nutrition in Farmer Field Schools in Eastern Africa

Elizabeth Nafula Kuria , 2014

Eastern and Central Africa continue to face acute and chronic food and nutrition insecurity1. Combined with a high incidence of HIV, food security continues to affect the nutrition and health status of poor households. There is growing recognition of the vital importance of expanding agricultural development capacity to include nutrition objectives, particularly in agricultural extension and training. The adoption of participatory extension approaches, such as the Farmer Field School (FFS), provides additional opportunities to move agricultural development beyond productivity and yield goals to more effectively contributing to improved nutritional outcomes.

Agricultural Technology Adoption, Food Security, Poverty and Child Health

Anna Folke Larsen , 2015

The three self-contained chapters of this dissertation evolves around different aspects of a Farmer Field School intervention taking place in northern Tanzania, studying the diffusion of agricultural technologies and how agriculture links to food security, poverty and child health. The intervention is called RIPAT (Rural Initiatives for Participatory Agricultural Transformation) and was funded by the Rockwool Foundation. As a consultant for the Rockwool Foundation I administered a large scale data collection for an impact evaluation of RIPAT.

All three chapters of my dissertation build on these data. The first two chapters are coauthored with Helene Bie Lilleør. A recurrent theme in this dissertation is the identification of causal effects. Since participation in RIPAT is voluntary, the data does not offer direct experimental variation which I can exploit for identification, and there exists no baseline data collected before the implementation of RIPAT I to control for selection. I pursue different identification strategies which are detailed in the three chapters. In the following, I provide a preview of the findings.

Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India

Suneetha Kadiyala, Emily H. Morgan, Shruthi Cyriac, Amy Margolies, Terry Roopnaraine , 2016

Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India, Suneetha Kadiyala, Emily H. Morgan, Shruthi Cyriac, Amy Margolies, Terry Roopnaraine, 2016

Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutritionspecific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages.

Gender and Nutrition Measurement Tools: Evaluating Their Appropriateness in the Context of Zambia

Rhoda Mofya-Mukuka, Mulako Kabisa , 2017

Zambia remains one of the countries with the highest levels of malnutrition on the African continent, despite increasing investment to curb the situation. Similarly, Zambia continues to perform poorly on gender equality. Evidence from the Zambian Demographic Health Survey reveals that in comparison to men, women have less education, lower literacy levels, and less exposure to mass media, which directly affects their position in their households as well as society (CSO 2015).

Indigenous Wild Food Plants in Home Gardens: Improving Health and Income - With the Assistance of Agricultural Extension

Robert L. Freedman , 2015

The wide-spread presence of home gardens, in developing nations is a strong foundation for food security, both in terms of quantity and quality. Indigenous wild food plants are a rich source of health-giving micronutrients, which are missing from highly refined fast/convenience foods the growing reliance on which has caused an ever-increasing occurrence of dietary-related diseases. A simple solution to resolving micronutrient malnutrition is the transplanting of neglected and underutilized plant species (NUS) into home gardens. These plants can also be sold in local markets providing additional family income. Agricultural extension personnel can play an influential role in promoting the transplanting process by presenting workshops for women farmers and home makers. Guidelines and resources for these workshops are given below.

Research Into Men’s Perceptions of Their Roles and Involvement in Household Decisions Around Food in Rural Bangladesh

Suzanna Smith , 2016

Like other INGENAES activities, this research activity aims toward the larger goal of building gender-responsive agricultural extension and advisory services and as a result, improving women farmers’ agricultural productivity and household nutrition. This particular project expanded the overall INGENAES focus by bringing men into the picture, specifically, looking at men’s perspective on their roles in meeting household nutritional needs and their preferences for nutrition-sensitive extension approaches. In addition, this project sought out information from men and women about gender roles and particularly transformations in gender roles taking place in rural villages that might affect nutritional outcomes.

Characterization of Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices amongstRural Farmers Engaged in Agricultural Extension Services in the Dry Corridor of Honduras

Juan Andrade , 2017

Poverty is the basic cause of undernutrition and undernutrition contributes to the vicious cycle of poverty. Honduras is a low middle-income country located in Central America facing major development challenges. According to the World Bank, more than 63 percent of the population lived in poverty in 2014. Poverty disproportionately affects the rural areas, where approximately six out of 10 households live in extreme poverty, or on less than US$2.50 per day.1 Moreover food security in Honduras is threatened by high probability of tropical storms and hurricanes, droughts, floods and landslides, deforestation, and frequent mild earthquakes.

Analyzing the Gender Sensitivity of Rural Advisory Services in Bangladesh

M. Wakilur Rahman, Nishith Zahan Tanny, M. Serajul Islam , 2017

Analyzing the Gender Sensitivity of Rural Advisory Services in Bangladesh, M. Wakilur Rahman, Nishith Zahan Tanny, M. Serajul Islam, 2017

Gender relations in Bangladesh have been undergoing a process of considerable transformation over the past thirty years as part of a broader process of economic transition and societal change. Women farmers made up 40 percent of the total agricultural labor force in 2010, with a 7 percent growth in women’s participation in agriculture between 2005 and 2010 (Akter et.al., 2015). Evidence shows that the wage difference between men and women in agriculture decreased from 40% to 30% for the year 2011/12 to 2013/14, which can be taken as a positive change (FPMU, 2015; BBS Monthly Bulletin, 2015), although the gap is still very high. Despite such progress, Bangladeshi women are still primarily considered to be unpaid family labor (56.3% of women in the labor force), and their contributions to agriculture are not fully recognized, neither in the household and communities nor at the national level (SFYP, 2015).

Analysis of Indicators and Measurement Tools Used in Zambia to Assess Impact of Agricultural Extension Programs on Gender Equity and Nutrition Outcomes

Rhoda Mofya-Mukuka, Mulako Kabisa , 2016

In Zambia, investment in agricultural extension with a focus on gender equity and nutrition outcomes has been increasing, and in the last decade, several organizations have replicated projects in different geographical areas. However, with persistent high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies still being recorded especially among children below the age of five, it is either these initiatives have little impact on reducing malnutrition, they are not sufficient, the correct programs are not being implemented, and/or the methods used to measure the impact may be inappropriate.

Smallholder Agriculture’s Contribution to Better Nutrition

Steve Wiggins, Sharada Keats , 2013

Smallholder agriculture can potentially affect food security and nutrition through the following pathways: 

  1. Making food available through production; 
  2. Reducing the real cost of food by increasing the supply of food. The composition of production also matters, since this affects the availability and prices of different foods with their varying nutrients; 
  3. Generating incomes for farmers and those working the land as labourers, that allow access to food; and through 
  4. Providing incomes to others in the rural economy from linkages in production and consumption that create additional activity and jobs. 

The Role of Agriculture: Producing Food to Nourish People?

Global Nutrition , 2016

This factsheet is the second publication by generation nutrition looking at the differentways of preventing child undernutrition. It explains howagricultural programmes in developing countries can have a bigger impact in reducing undernutrition and, in doing so, fulfil one of the sectors main roles: to provide people with the nutritious food they need for a healthy and productive life.

Integrating Agriculture and Nutrition Education for Improved Young Child Nutrition

FAO , 2016

Given that the emphasis on enhancing agriculture’s impact on nutrition is relatively new, some key knowledge gaps exist on the relative mix of components and the extent of their integration that make implementation most effective. The institutional aspects of programme delivery, technical capacities and inter-sectoral collaboration required are also not well understood. Questions remain regarding the design and implementation of nutrition education for behaviour change and what makes such interventions work, how they can be sustained and scaled up, and at what cost? Much work remains to be done to know exactly what to do and how to do it, and to determine where the greatest opportunities are. In other words, it is important to know which type of programmes deliver the greatest benefit to target beneficiaries and are likely to have the greatest impact.

Nutrition-sensitive Agriculture Programming

Mercy Corps , 2015

The guidance is designed for non-nutrition specialists. It helps agriculturalists avoid unintentionally harming the nutritional status of target households and boost nutrition whenever possible. It includes:

Nutrition Sensitivity: How Agriculture Can Improve Child Nutrition

Save the Children , 2014

There is broad consensus on the need to scale up nutrition-specific interventions– ie, direct nutrition interventions such as promoting exclusive breastfeeding, infant and young child feeding, or greater coverage of vitamin A. But the limited evidence base on nutrition-sensitive approaches makes it difficult for agriculture, social protection and other relevant policies to take account of their potential impact on nutrition. There is an urgent need to strengthen the nutritional component of many agricultural policies and investment plans.2 A role of agricultural policy is to promote economic development and provide nutrition for a country’s population. CAADP plans should include a nutrition strategic objective supported by clearly defined indicators. The indicators should be differentiated by gender and age group (adult and child).

Nutrition Core Competences for Mid-Level Animal and Plant Science Disciplines at Agriculture Technical Vocational Education and Training Colleges in Ethiopia

Jhpiego , 2012

Ethiopio is one of the 36 countries with the highest burden of malnutrition in the world. In recent years, the country has improved the underweight and stunting trends in under-five children, for which rates of stunting and under-weight decreased by 14% and 12% respectively, between 2000 and 2011; while prevalence of vasting did not show significant progress over the past 11 years. Currently, more then 4 out of 10 under-five children are still chronically malnutritioned, and nutrition has become one of the major national agenda items that need multi-sectoral coordination. The Empowering New Generations to Improve Nutrition and Economic Opportunities (EGNE) project iw working to strengthen mulit-sector coordination and build capacity at the policy and implementation levels, as well as at the pre-service education and training level.

Reducing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services: How to Find the Best Fit for Men and Women Farmers

Cristina Manfre, Deborah Rubin, Andrea Allen, Gale Summerfield, Kathleen Colverson, Mercy Akeredolu , 2013

Reducing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services: How to Find the Best Fit for Men and Women Farmers, Cristina Manfre, Deborah Rubin, Andrea Allen, Gale Summerfield, Kathleen Colverson, Mercy Akeredolu, 2013

Agriculture is a fundamental driver of economic growth and poverty reduction for many developing countries. Past efforts at revitalizing the agriculture sector have failed in part because they overlooked the role of women and the negative effects of gender inequalities on productivity. According to The State of Food and Agriculture (FAO, 2011), “Women comprise, on average, 43% of the agricultural labor force in developing countries, ranging from 20% in Latin America to 50% in Eastern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa”. Reducing gender inequalities in access to productive resources and services could increase yields on women’s farms by 20–30%, which could raise agricultural output in developing countries by 2.5–4% (FAO, 2011).

Mainstreaming Agrobiodiversity in Sustainable Food Systems:

Bioversity International , 2017

In today’s complex and interconnected world, what we eat and how we produce it are inextricably bound together. A focus on increasing food production without due concern for the environment is causing severe land and water degradation. A focus on addressing hunger without a focus on good nutrition is causing an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. A focus on increasing yields in a few staple food crops is contributing to loss of crop diversity. What we need is to be able to produce a wide variety of nutritious foods while having minimal impact on the environment – a sustainable food system. The Sustainable Development Goals, signed by 193 world leaders in 2015, recognize that these challenges are interconnected and multidimensional.

Competency Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services

Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper, Andrea Bohn, Cristina Manfre, Sandra Russo, Deborah Rubin , 2017

Competency Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services, Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper, Andrea Bohn, Cristina Manfre, Sandra Russo, Deborah Rubin, 2017

The INGENAES capacity development activities are intended to build gender-responsive, nutrition-sensitive skills among organizations providing agricultural extension services (AES). The objectives are to enable these organizations to identify and equip staff with the appropriate skills to deliver services that lead to improved gender- and nutrition-related outcomes; and to establish a set of gender-responsive, nutrition-sensitive AES practices that substantially and effectively strengthen gender equity and improve nutrition outcomes. 

What types of skills, attitudes, and behaviors (SAB)1 are necessary to enable institutions to deliver gender- and nutrition-informed services? 

The SABs needed at the individual level require a supportive environment that enables individual extension workers to employ the SABs. Such a supportive environment consists of technically correct training, supportive supervision, and appropriate incentives to encourage SAB deployment by staff. 

Food-based Dietary Guidelines: An Overview

Jeanette Andrade, Juan Andrade , 2016

Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: An Overview, Jeanette Andrade, Juan Andrade,, 2016

Men and women of all ages need to consume a variety of foods to support growth, provide strength, improve cognitive function, and reduce susceptibility to chronic diseases, illnesses, and infection (Smolin & Grosvenor, 2016; WHO, 2014). In an effort to help address the nutrition concerns of populations, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) have been established in several countries around the world (FAO, 2016). These FBDG are created to inform the public about consuming more nutritious foods and living a healthier life (FAO, 2016). Additionally, countries use FBDGs not only to guide nutrition education programs but also to guide policies and programs in various sectors like agriculture, education and social protection. The purpose of this technical note is to help health professionals and non-health professionals understand basic facts about the FBDG such as origins, purpose, characteristics, and potential challenges when developing and implementing these FBDG with target communities.

Methods for Teaching and Evaluating Food-Based Dietary Guidelines

Jeanette Andrade, Juan Andrade , 2016

Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) are established in several countries around the world to address the nutrition concerns of populations (FAO, 2016). FBDGs inform the public about consuming nutritious foods and living a healthy life (FAO, 2016). However, the methods and strategies to educate the public, especially those living in rural communities, and their evaluation are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this technical note is to two-fold: 1) to assist health professionals and non-health professionals educate the public about understanding and using FBDGs, and 2) to provide organizations an overview of methods to evaluate these teaching strategies for their effectiveness in changing community members’ dietary behaviors.

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