Philosophy and principles
The AIS framework recognises innovation as an interactive process. Central to the process are the interactions of different actors and their ideas; the institutions (the attitudes, habits, rules, laws, norms, practices, and ways of working) that shape how individuals and organisations interact; and learning as a means of evolving new arrangements specific to local contexts. While interaction among the actors within the innovation system is critical for innovation, several institutional and policy barriers generally constrain effective collaboration and knowledge flows among these different actors. Advocating for changes in institutions and policies is therefore critical for innovation. In other words, innovation requires enabling a combination of technological, organisational, institutional, and policy change.
Though research, education, and extension are key components of AIS, these are usually not sufficient to bring knowledge, technologies, and services to farmers and entrepreneurs. (5)