argentina

Argentina, also known as Argentine Republic, is located on the southeastern side of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and going all the way to the southernmost tip where the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans meet. It is the largest South-American Spanish-speaking country, claiming to have about 97 percent of its population descending from Spain and Italy. The population of Argentina is 41 million, and the name of its capital is Buenos Aires. Argentina comprises 23 provinces. The provinces are administratively divided into departments and municipalities while the autonomous city of Buenos Aires is divided into communes. Although Argentina, an industrial country, is economically rated as an upper-middle class country, it has lately suffered from severe recessions.

Argentina’s climate varies with its locations. Hot summers and dry winters prevail in the north; the central region enjoys a temperate climate with hot summers and cool winters; and the southern part of the country has warm summers but snow-loaded winters.

Context

Context

Argentina’s agriculture, which is one of the most important economic sectors, is characterized by a considerable number of large corporate farms and/or ranches with some going up to a million plus hectares, millions of family farms ranging from 25 to 200 hectares in size, adoption of GMO (genetically modified organisms) and Bt (biotech) crops including soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum and cotton, no-till, precision agriculture, value-addition agro-industry and exports. The country has five distinct agricultural regions namely Pampas, Campos and East Chaco, West Chaco, Central Semiarid, and Patagonia. Major cereal crops include soybeans (the major export crop), wheat, maize, oats and sorghum. Main cash crops are sunflower, linseed, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco. Vegetables include beans, potatoes, onions and garlic, while the fruits include grapefruits, lemon, tangerine, grapes, peaches and plums. Livestock constitute an important economic sub-sector in terms of meat and milk production, and live cattle exports. Pasturing is common and the animals include cattle, sheep, goats, horses and poultry. Fishery is also an important source of economy. 

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

1,475,480

53.91

38,048,000

13.90

0.93

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

25.42

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

10.98

114.09

54.16

2.39

2012

2011

2011

2011

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

5,170

2006

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

97.79

99.37

99.00

100.37

111.41

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

134.92

47.70

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

41,086,927

14.88

3,023,751

7.36

7.56

18,631,591

1,405,000

7.54

10.74

2012

2011

2012

2012

2010

2011

2010

2012

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

History

History of extension and the enabling environment

Formal agricultural extension services started in Argentina in 1956 with the establishment of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA – Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria). INTA’s mandate was to develop agricultural research and extension in addition to improving both agricultural businesses and the quality of rural life. This extension mandate emphasizing human and social aspects came out of the necessity because the Ministry of Agriculture was required to disseminate agricultural and rural development information to the rural population through more than 200 Rural Extension Agencies (Agencias de Extension). The technical staff of each of these Rural Extension Agencies comprised one agronomist or a veterinarian, who also functioned as head of the agency, one economist, and one technician who mainly worked with rural youth of relevant community. Local leadership was also developed through education for the purposes of technology transfer and positive behavioral change among farmers.

INTA changed its extension emphasis during the 1970s in line with the new policy of the government. The new mandate focused on the medium-sized farmers rather than small farmers, and on a technology-driven approach instead of the previous human- and society-driven approach. Thus the new priority of extension became the adoption of improved agricultural technologies by the medium-sized farmers.

INTA was reorganized in the mid-1980s and given a different mandate, this time focusing on the establishment of the Centers of Regional Councils (Consejos de Centro Regionales). It was essentially decentralization of various services, which could be strategized and coordinated at the Centers. The Centers were also given authorization for policy formulation and budget allocation to their respective regions.

In 1993, the Government of Argentina launched a program called Rural Change (Cambio Rural) in support of medium-sized agricultural enterprises, which was jointly overseen by INTA, the National Agriculture and Food Secretary, provincial governments, and agricultural companies. The two objectives of the program were to strengthen the capacity of producers’ groups in forming organizations, and to develop individual producers.  Each group of producers was assigned one extension agent for providing training; the extension agent was backstopped by project directors in consultation with INTA’s technical staff.  

Another extension-oriented initiative taken by the Ministry of Environment and Social Development, and implemented by INTA, was a food security program called Pro-Huerta. This program was to encourage poor families to grow more vegetables for their own consumption. Yet another extension-related program called Minifundio was also started, which aimed at improving the income and quality of life of smallholders.

In 1992, an Argentinean consulting company named INTA La Consulta, based in Mendoza, started offering a workshop on garlic every two years. The workshops were attended by researchers, extension workers, growers and industry representatives who discussed various aspects of production, technology transfer and commercialization of garlic. New research and extension findings on garlic were also presented during these workshops. Onion Councils were established in Argentina in 1997.

Argentina presents an interesting example of integration of public agricultural research and extension, private sector, and farmers in the form of CREA groups of farmers (Consorcios Regionales de Experimentacion Agricola; in English: Regional Consortiums of Agricultural Experimentation). The concept of CREAs, which is like a movement started about 40 years ago, stems from the French CETAs (Centers of Studies of Agricultural Techniques) under which the French government partially financed local grouping of public (researchers, extension agents, university scientists) and private stakeholders (private scientists, farm input suppliers, agro-processors and traders), and farmers to discuss production problems and work out their solutions.

In Argentina, however, there is no government funding for such grouping. At local level, farmers form a small group comprising about 10 members for the purpose of improving each member’s enterprise. The combination of several groups constitutes a region, and the combination of several regions constitutes the Argentina Association of CREA (abbreviated as AA CREA or simply AACREA). Each CREA group hires a private technical advisor or consultant (for example, an agronomist) who participates in the meetings where each member farmer presents his/her crop records and enterprise details (yield, expenses, returns, etc.) to the group, and the members, assisted by the agronomist, give feedback to the presenter.

Each region hires a coordinator, who coordinates activities such as monthly meetings, consultations with advisors, formulation of regional research projects, etc. Each group elects its office bearers and decides fee and benefits for the advisors. This extension approach, that is on social lines and driven by the spirit of mutual sharing of experiences, has enhanced yield in many regions. Constraints and challenges to the approach include the absence of public funding required for costly scientific experiments, and sustainability of the interest of group members in sharing, which is occasionally threatened by competition between neighbor groups.

Presently, Argentina has a mixed bag of extension service providers that includes the government, the private sector, agricultural universities, and civil society organizations. The service providers are located at all administrative levels. Three main projects that have contributed to the strengthening of agricultural extension in Argentina are:

  1. Agricultural Technology Uptake Project: (financed by the Inter-American Development Bank) focused on extension for grape production.
  2. Provincial Agricultural Development Project (PROSAP): (co-financed by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank); its extension services were funded by the government but were delivered by private agricultural specialists; focused on rural development and better agricultural services for farmers.
  3. Rural Development Project for the Northeastern Provinces (PRODERNEA): (financed by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and was the second phase of the Program of Credit and Technical Support for Small Producers in Northeast Argentina (PNEA) completed in 1996.

Exension Providers

Major institutions providing extension/advisory services

Public Institutions

Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (MAGyP - Ministério de Agricultura, Ganaderfa y Pesca)

The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries oversees the elaborate agricultural extension network involving many public, private and civil society institutions and individuals. This function is performed by the Ministry through the following offices/institutions/projects:

At the national level:

Sub-Secretary of Family Agriculture (SSAF)
In 2008, the SSAF created 22 provincial delegations for each of the five regions of the country. Each delegation has at least one technical group that provides extension advice, training, and field visit services to family farmers. These services are provided based on territorial zones.

National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA – Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecudria)
INTA is generally considered as the leading agricultural research institution in Argentina, but it has been deeply and extensively involved in extension work since its establishment.  INTA receives its funding from the Ministry and is organizationally decentralized. Apart from its headquarter in Buenos Aires, INTA comprises 15 regional centers (which actively interact with local producers), four research centers (Veterinary and Agronomic Sciences Research Center; Natural Resources Research Center; Agro-Industrial Research Center; Research and Technological Center for Familiar Agriculture), 50 experimental stations, 16 institutes, and over 330 Extension Units located across the country. INTA’s National Coordination Office for Technology Transfer and Extension prepares extension strategies and actions that are implemented by the regional centers. In 2011, there were a total of 1,500 extension agents among the 7,300 persons working at INTA.

At the provincial and municipality levels:

  • Unit for Rural Change (UCAR)
    The UCAR coordinates all agricultural and rural development programs and projects, which are totally or partially financed by external resources and implemented by the Ministry. Examples of the projects are: Provincial Agricultural Development Project (PROSAP), financed by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank; Rural Area Development Project of Patagonia (PRODERPA), co-financed by IFAD; and Rural Areas Development Program (PRODEAR), also co-financed by IFAD.
  • Woman Farmer Project (Mujer Campesina).
  • Rural Youth Project (Jóvenes Rurales).
  • Federal Program for Supporting Sustainable Rural Development (ProFeder – Programa Federal de Apoyo al Desarollo Rural Sustenible).

The ProFeder, integrated into INTA’s extension system in 2003, promotes technological and organizational innovation of rural actors, builds the actors’ capacity, and aims at enhancing the regional and national competitiveness. The program acts as an extension framework within which different group and participatory strategies are developed for each of INTA’s target groups. The ProFeder has been implementing the following specific strategies:

  • Minifundio focuses on the provision of technical assistance to small farmers; in 2011, this strategy was being used in 150 community projects with the participation of more than 16,000 families.
  • Cambio Rural meant for medium producers.
  • Profam meant for family producers.
  • Pro-Huerta meant for the rural and urban population under the poverty line, but also for projects that support local development involving various actors and local institutions. The program concentrates on improving food security and promoting the development of family, school, community, and institutional gardens and organic farms through a network of technicians (such as agronomists, agricultural technicians, and social scientists), who numbered 737 at the national level in 2010, and voluntary promoters (such as teachers, health agents, and knowledgeable individuals with access to needy communities), who were associated with various organizations and numbered 19,500 in 2010.

Género MERCOSUR Program
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay signed the Tratado de Asuncion (Treaty of Accession) in 1991, establishing the MERCOSUR. The program focuses on integrating gender in development.

Agricultural universities

Argentina has several agricultural universities, some of which are more active than others in agricultural extension work besides having their own extension related programs, interact closely with agricultural research and extension institutions especially in the field. None of the universities, however, can be called as a regular provider of extension services to the farmers. Three examples of universities are:

  • Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina has the Institute of Culture and University Extension.
  • National University of La Plata has a University Extension Department.
  • University of Buenos Aires has a University Extension Department whose main objective is to produce changes in society so as to contribute effectively to a better quality of life; operates a program on School and Community Gardens (PEUHEC).

Non-Public Institutions

Private sector

The private sector in Argentina is very active in all aspects of agriculture, including livestock, forestry and fisheries, farming, agro-industry and exports. The private sector keeps interacting with agricultural producers, researchers, extension agents, universities’ staff, and with public, private and civil society institutions in general. Some foreign companies are also involved in Argentina’s agriculture. Most companies do have some type of direct or indirect extension and advisory activities in line with their business agenda. A brief account of certain private companies involved in agricultural operations includes:

  • Calata Corp., a Philippines-based company signed a memorandum of agreement with National Agribusiness Corp. (Nabcor) in 2012, and was negotiating with other major Argentinean corn growing companies with the aim to plant corn farms on a total land area of 20,000 hectares. Calata’s business activities include the distribution and retail of agricultural products like animal feeds, fertilizers, agro-chemicals, seeds, etc. 
  • Generadora Eolica Argentina del Sur SA (GEASSA), in 2012, reportedly expected to receive a $3 billion loan from the China Development Bank to establish a planned 1,350 MW wind farm in Argentina.
  • The Beidahuang Group of China was reportedly seeking in 2011, thousands of hectares of land on lease in the Rio Negro Province of Argentina for the production of soybeans, wheat, and oilseed rape. The Chinese company’s main businesses are rice milling and soy processing.
  • El Tejar S.A. is an Argentinean agricultural company involved in commercial farming, livestock slaughtering, and services’ provision. The company aims at cultivating up to one million hectares and breed a million head of cattle, all by 2020.
  • Olmedo Agropecuaria S.A., an Argentinean company that produces mainly soybean and corn. It farms on about 100,000 hectares of land, 95 per cent of which is its own.
  • Grupo Werthen S.A. is an Argentinean company that owns 100,000 hectares of land, 45,000 cattle heads, a fruit processing plant, and a grain processing plant for popcorn, confection sunflower and pulses. It also produces dried and dehydrated fruits.
  • Agrintensive, Sowing Pool is an Argentinean enterprise comprising members who are individual investors, stock-pilers and national and multinational seed producers. The company uses contractors’ services for farm operations.
  • La Redencion Sofro, an Argentinean company, is devoted to the production and management of third parties’ land, with the incorporation of new technology, research, and development.
  • Ceres Tolvas grows 36,000 hectares of wheat, barley, corn, sunflower and soybeans. The company is also involved in the distribution of inputs and services.
  • Openagro S.A. is an Argentinean company of agricultural business and services led by a group of professionals from different fields who claim to possess in-depth knowledge of the agricultural sector of Argentina, and enjoy extensive experience in marketing.
  • AACREA (Argentine Association of Agricultural Experimentation Groups) is a private agricultural advisory organization, with a network of producers and field advisors.
  • Private individual advisors and consultants: Argentina has a large number of well-qualified and experienced private advisors and consultants who are hired on contract basis by producers’ organizations and farmers’ groups to perform specific technical tasks related to farming, agro-processing, marketing and exports.

Non-governmental organizations

There are a large number of NGOs in Argentina engaged in a variety of humanitarian and development activities. Some of the farmers’ organizations and cooperatives have also been registered as NGOs. These NGOs, which are involved in rural and agricultural development, also undertake extension or extension type activities, and collaborate with the public extension staff. Names of a few NGOs that are involved in agricultural and rural development activities mostly in and/or around the Misiones Province of Argentina are:

  • Organization for Human, Environmental and Technological Development (ODHAT – Organización para el Desarrollo Humano, Ambiental y Tecnológica).
  • Union of the Family Farmers’ School (UNEFAM – Union de Escuelas de la Familia Agricola).
  • Institute of Social Development and Human Promotion (INDES – Instituto de Desarrollo Social y Promocion Humana).
  • Association for the Human Promotion and Local Development (APHyDAL - Asociación para la Promocion Humana y el Desarrollo Local).
  • Union of Rural Technicians Workers of Misiones (UTTERMI – Union de Trabajadores Técnicos Rurales de Misiones).
  • Mocona Association (Asociación).

Farmers-based associations, cooperatives and societies

Argentina has a significant number of active and powerful farmers’ associations and agricultural cooperatives which not only influence relevant public policy decision-making but also protect their members’ interests besides providing services and benefits to them. Agricultural cooperatives market and/or process their members’ produce. Most of these associations and cooperatives hire private agricultural experts or consultants for specific extension and advisory advice. Names and a brief description of some a few farmers-based associations and agricultural cooperatives are as follows:

  • Argentine Cooperative Association (ACA – Asociación de Cooperativas Argentinas).
  • Agricultural Inter-Cooperative Confederation (CONIAGRO – Confederacion Intercooperativa Agropecuaria) has about 1,000 member cooperatives including the powerful SanCor Cooperative; produce rice, grains, dairy products, beef, tea, and tobacco.
  • Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives of San Juan (FECOAGRO).
  • Argentine Association of Regional Consortiums for Agricultural Experimentation (AACREA – Asociación Argentina de Consorcios Regionales de Experimentacion Agricola) works to increase production efficiency in agribusiness.
  • Argentine No Till Farmers Association; also known as the Argentine Association of Direct Seeding Farmers (AAPRESID – Asociación Argentina de Productores en Siembra Directa) spreads knowledge on the benefits of till-less farming and on biotechnology for soybean cultivation. 
  • Argentine Rural Confederations (CRA) has about 100,000 members that are medium-sized producers with farms ranging from 200 to 1,000 hectares, some larger, producing wool, tobacco, citrus fruits, cereals, beef and soybeans.
  • Argentine Rural Society (SRA) has about 10,000 member farmers who are large land owners, traditionally raising beef cattle.
  • Argentine Agrarian Federation (FAA) has about 100,000 members owning one hectare or less piece of land.
  • Soybean Growers Association (Foro PAIS).
  • National Corn Growers’ Association (MAIZAR).
  • Bee-Keepers Association strengthened under the IFAD-financed Rural Development Project for the North-Eastern Provinces (PRODERNEA).

Names and locations of some of the farmers’ associations and cooperatives that have been involved in managing various Italian-funded projects, and which were also beneficiaries, are:

  • Agricultores Productores Famillares, Buenos Aires.
  • Asociación Pequenos Productores Tucumanos, Tucuman.
  • Cooperativa Mujeres del Litoral, Santa Fe.
  • Movimiento Agrário Argentino, Misiones.
  • Asociación Entrerriana de Mujeres Campesinas, Centro.
  • Cooperative La Pachamama, NOA.

List of Extension Providers

icon target The following list shows an excerpt from the GFRAS Directory of Extension Providers for Argentina. Some of these entries may be specially marked for having more detailed information in the database of the Worldwide Extension Study WWES.

Training

Training options for extension professionals

For pre-service academic preparation, would-be extension professionals may enroll in degree or diploma programs at the following universities in Argentina:

  • University of Buenos Aires: Established in 1821; considered as the most prestigious institution of higher learning in the country; has no central campus; access to the university is free of charge for all including foreigners, but post-graduate programs charge tuition fee; involved in teaching, research and extension; has Faculty of Agronomy, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, and an Extension Department.
  • University of Belgrano: A private institution, established in 1964; located in Belgrano district of the city of Buenos Aires; has a Department of Agricultural Sciences.
  • National University of Cordoba: The oldest university in the country; located in Cordoba and has a School of Agriculture
  • Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina: A private institution established in 1958; main campus in Puerto Madero near Buenos Aires, and other campuses in Santa Fe, Rosario, Parana, Mendoza and Pergamino; has a Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, and the Institute of Culture and University Extension.
  • National University of La Plata: Established in 1897; located in La Plata; has Faculty of Agrarian and Forest Sciences, and the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.  

For in-service training, extension professionals may contact the following institutions in Argentina, some of which offer regular training courses, while special need-based training arrangements may be made:

  • Any of the above mentioned universities with faculties of agriculture.
  • National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) or any of its associated agricultural research centers depending on the technical subject-matter in which training is required.
  • Pascual Gentilini Agricultural School, located in San Jose and celebrated its 85th anniversary in 2012.
  • Any current external donor-financed project in rural and agricultural development that has a capacity building component. Contact country offices/representatives of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank, and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

ICT

Info-mediaries and information and communication technology (ict) for agriculture and extension

According to the World Bank, in 2011, the number of mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) in Argentina was 134.92. During the same year, the number of Internet users (per 100 people) in the country was 47.70.

There are several public institutions involved in ICT matters but, at the federal level, the most relevant is the Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation (MINCyT). Provincial public institutions like the S&T Ministry of the Province of Cordoba, and the Scientific Research Commission of Buenos Aires are also actively involved. In 2008, Argentina produced the “White Book of ICT Prospective: Project 2020”. The document is based on consultations with more than 150 stakeholders from various walks of life including agriculture. The President of Argentina presented the country’s first National Digital Agenda in 2009, which in fact is a work in progress rather than a closed document. Two recent ICT related documents produced by the government are Plan Estratégico Industrial 2020, and Conectar Igualdad. Two national programs namely Argentina Conectada, and ICT Scholarship National Program have also been launched.

In 2009, MINCyT announced ICT priorities for R&D. The ICT for agriculture and agribusiness priorities include precision agriculture, telecommunications, and the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The GIS is meant for monitoring certain agro-production aspects such as meteorological and hydrological alerts, early detection of crop and animal diseases, and animal and vegetal genetic basis.

All above mentioned developments show the commitment and seriousness of the Government of Argentina in developing a viable ICT sector in support of its economic sectors including agriculture. However, presently, the use of ICT is visible in Argentina only in the forms of radio and television programs, increasing use of the Internet and cell phones, distance education programs, and probably some databases. There is no evidence as yet of ICT currently being applied to agricultural extension and advisory services. The National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) and all major universities are eager to develop ICT applications in support of their research, extension and academic programs. In 2008, a study was conducted by InfoDev on enhancing the livelihoods of the rural poor through ICT. In 2009, a PowerPoint presentation made by INTA at a joint Argentina-South Africa workshop on ICT, held in Buenos Aires, identified specific areas of INTA’s activities that could benefit from ICT. Apparently, the private sector is also active in the field of ICT. It is just a matter of time when ICT will be substantially and visibly incorporated in agricultural extension and advisory programs in Argentina.

Resources

Resources and references

Acosta, M.C. and C.C. Srnec. 2011. Strategies for action and public policy implications of the third degree cooperatives in Argentina. Original, Spanish version published in Vision de Futuro, Ano 8, Volumen No. 15, No. 2, Julio-Diciembre 2011; English version available at: www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/vf/v15n2/en_v15n2a06.pdf.

Arboleya, J. and E. Restaino. 2004. Agricultural extension models in South America: A description of systems in use in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. HortTechnology, January-March 2004 14(1), Pp. 14-19

Berdegue, J.A. and R. Fuentealba. 2011. Latin America: The State of Smallholders in Agriculture. Paper presented at the IFAD Conference on New Directions for Smallholder Agriculture, held in Rome 24-25 January, 2011: Rome: International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Cerdan-Infantes, P., A. Maffioli, and D. Ubfal. 2008. The Impact of Agricultural Extension Services: The Case of Grape Production in Argentina. Inter-American Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight; Working Paper: OVE/WP-05/08.

CIPPEC [Center for the Implementation of Public Policies Promoting Equity and Growth]. 2008. Enhancing the Livelihoods of the Rural Poor through ICT: A Knowledge Map; Argentina Country Study. InfoDev Working Paper No. 10.

Dowbley, V. and Abare-Brs.2010. Argentina: National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA); PowerPoint presentation made at Canberra on August 12, 2010.

FAO (no date). Argentina: Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives of San Juan, in Chapter 3, “Agribusiness Linkages in the Selected Countries”; available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y6001e08.htm.

Finquelievich, S.F. and D. Finquelievich (no date; probably 2008). Report on ICT Research in Argentina. Buenos Aires: WINDS Latin America; Fundación Gestion y Desarrollo.

Gallacher, M. (no date). Education as an Input in Agricultural Production. Available at: www.econbiz.de/.../education-as-an-input-in-agricultural-production-arg

Garbulsky, M.F. and V. A. Deregibus (no date). Argentina: Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

INTA [National Institute of Agricultural Technology]. 2009. Argentine ICT for Agriculture. PowerPoint presentation made at the Argentina-South Africa Workshop on Information and Communication Technologies, held at Buenos Aires, September 16 to 17, 2009.

Lence, S.H. 2010. The Agricultural Sector in Argentina: Major Trends and Recent Developments; Chapter 14 in The Shifting Patterns of Agricultural Production and Productivity Worldwide. Ames, Iowa: The Midwest Agribusiness Trade and Information Center, Iowa State University.

Manciana, E., M. Trucco, and M. Pineiro. 2009. Large-Scale Acquisition of Land Rights for Agricultural or Natural Resource-Based Use: Argentina. Electronically published by the Social Science Research Network (SSRN); available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=915343

Mendali, R., G.C.W. Ames, and L.F. Gunter. 2013. Total Factor Productivity in Brazil’s and Argentina’s Agriculture: A Comparative Analysis. Selected paper prepared for presentation at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association (SAEA) Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida 3-5 February 2013.

MINCyT [Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation, Argentina]. 2011. D5.1-Status of ICT Policy Development: Country Report Argentina.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Italy. 2013. Ex Post Evaluation of Projects Managed by NGOs in Argentina: Final Report. General Direction [Directorate] for Development Cooperation.

Montaner, J.G. (no date). Successful Integration of Research and Extension Combining Private and Public Organizations: Lessons from Argentina. Available at: www.cropscience.org/au/icsc2004/pdf/2083_montaner.pdf.

Nardi, M.A. 2011. Rural Development and Territorial Dynamics in the Province of Misiones, Argentina. Lund University, Sweden

Podesta, G., E.U. Weber, C. Laciana, F. Bert, and D. Letson (no date). Agricultural decision making in the Argentine Pampas: Modeling the interaction between uncertain and complex environments and heterogeneous and complex decision makers. Available at: www.link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-0-387-77131-1_3.

Santiago del Solar. 2013. Agriculture in Argentina Today. PowerPoint presentation made at the World Farmers Organization meeting held at Niigata, Japan, 15-18 April, 2013.

Schnepf, R.D., E. Dohlman, and C. Bolling. 2001. Agriculture in Brazil and Argentina: Developments and Prospects for Major Field Crops; Agriculture and Trade Report.WRS-01-3. Washington, DC: Market and Trade Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,

Schwartz, L.1994. The Role of the Private Sector in Agricultural Extension: Economic Analysis and Case Studies; Network Paper 48. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University, Department of Agricultural Economics.

Stads, G.J., A.M. Ruiz, and G. De Greef. 2010. Argentina: Agricultural Science & Technology Indicators (ASTI); ASTI Country Brief No. 44. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Valente, M. 2008. Argentina: Who are today’s farmers? Article published by Inter Press Service (IPS).

Vego, M.E.P. 2012. Sense Making in Small Farming Stories: Knowledge Creation in CREA Groups in Argentina. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University.

More

More documents

Feedback ?

Do you have corrections or additions to this article? Please use the commenting feature below to submit your contribution. And please be specific, point out what is missing, what is wrong, or what needs to be updated.

We will then incorporate your contribution into the main text.

Thank you!

 

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (September 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson