Welcome to the Nutrition-Sensitive Extension Library!

The GFRAS Nutrition Working Group (NWG) collected and organized the materials in this library so that extensionists, program developers, researchers, and decision makers would be able to access existing resources related to agricultural extension and advisory services (AEAS), and nutrition. Growing attention to the need to make food systems more responsive to human nutrition has motivated related AEAS activities, yet NWG members identified that project-level materials were often hard to find. It is our hope that by making resources available in a searchable platform, individuals working in this area can build off of the experience of previous activities and effectively meet the needs and opportunities that they encounter.

Do you have a resource that you would like to make available in the library? Please submit it here!

About the Nutrition Working Group:

The NWG aims to bring global attention to leveraging RAS for improved nutrition by engaging relevant stakeholders: practitioners, researchers, donors, etc. It was initiated by GFRAS, the INGENAES project, and FAO in 2016. (we could include a link to the NWG webpage here)

Competency Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services

INGENAES , 2017

What types of skills, attitudes, and behaviors (SAB)1 are necessary to enable institutions to deliver gender- and nutrition-informed services? 

The SABs needed at the individual level require a supportive environment that enables individual extension workers to employ the SABs. Such a supportive environment consists of technically correct training, supportive supervision, and appropriate incentives to encourage SAB deployment by staff. 

Sustainable Undernutrition Reduction in Ethiopia: Training manual for Health and Agriculture Development Armies

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia , 2015

This training manual is designed for health and agriculture extension workers to train health and agriculture development armies as part of the Sustainable Undernutrition Reduction in Ethiopia (SURE) programme. It provides HDAs and ADAs the knowledge they need to improve infant and young child feeding and dietary diversity through the discussions they facilitate with their 1-5 and 1-30 community networks. 

What Every Extension Worker Should Know - Core Competency Handbook

Murari Suvedi,, Michael Kaplowitz , 2016

This handbook is designed as a reference manual for front-line extension staff to use in their day-to-day work. It offers a set of tools for effective communication, program planning and evaluation. It is meant to support and educate agricultural extension workers worldwide. The intended audiences of this handbook include: governmental agriculture, fisheries, natural resources and community development ministry officials; governmental and non-governmental extension district/regional managers; extension-related faculty and their students—preservice extension workers; and field-level agents, whether governmental, non-governmental or for-profit. We hope that this handbook will help advance efforts to empower and continue educating extension personnel through in-service training opportunities, continuing education programming and “train-the-trainer” programs. Such efforts may include targeting specific tools of interest to audiences and inviting scholars/practitioners to teach participants about them. 

Sustainable Nutrition Manual Part 3: Healthy Designs

WFP , 2016

This part of the manual brings parts 1 and 2 together with your own knowledge and experience. It will guide you to create a personalised design for achieving sustainable nutrition and a better future. You’ll draw maps and sketches as you make your plans to make the most of all the resources that you have now, as well as building up resources for the future.

Sustainable Nutrition Manual Part 2: Healthy Environments

WFP , 2016

This part of the manual is about Natural Systems and Sustainability. You will learn about the Nature Cycle and the Water Cycle and an understanding about Soil Fertility and the benefits of Diversity in Nature will develop. You will be introduced to Permaculture designs and sustainable living practices. You will find out about renewable and non-renewable resources and begin to understand the wider issues of sustainability. This book can be used in your homes, offices, schools, communities, farms and gardens. You can discuss the ideas in it with others so that eventually your whole nation designs and lives sustainably.

Sustainable Nutrition Manual Part 1: Healthy Humans

WFP , 2016

This manual is for people who eat, grow or buy food and who want to improve their own lives, their community and the environment that they live in. It has been written for, and by, people living in Malawi, but the ideas in it can be applied anywhere in the world. It is for all people, everywhere, but most of all it is for you. Many people in Malawi have used this manual with great results and, if you use these ideas, you will also be able to:

  • Improve your diet and health
  • Save money that was spent on food, medicines and chemicals
  • Double or triple yields and harvests (or even more!)
  • Reduce the amount of watering in gardens and orchards
  • Reduce the amount of work done on your land and in your home
  • Have healthier plants and animals
  • Reduce infertile and unproductive areas of land
  • Use free resources to improve soil and water in your area

Pastoralist Field Schools - Training of Facilitators Manual

FAO, Government of Zimbabwe , 2013

This PFS training Manual is designed for use by Master Trainers (MTs) during the training of facilitators course. Each lesson/topic is complete in itself detailing the preparations to be made, the materials to be kept handy, the core message to be communicated, and the methods that can be used in communicating the messages. A few sessions may require the presence of a technical person as co-facilitator, but the rest can be handled by any person who has been trained as a PFS Master Trainer.

Nutrition Education Training for Agriculture Extension Officers

IYCN , -

Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture Trainer Manual for Agriculture Development Agents

Save the Children , 2012

In order to impact on the nutritional outcomes, there is a need to focus on nutrition-sensitive agriculture. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture involves the incorporation of nutritional concerns into the design and implementation of agricultural policies, projects and investments, targeting nutritionally vulnerable groups with these investments and particularly focusing on women and increasing year-round access to diverse, nutrient-dense foods. Development agents (DAs) or agriculture extension workers (AEWs) are at the forefront of the support available to farmers for improved agricultural production and opportunities to increase income. This nutrition-sensitive agriculture training aims at building the knowledge and skill of DAs in nutrition-sensitive agriculture so that they can promote agricultural and related practices that have the potential to maximize nutritional benefits. 

Nutrition Program Planning and Supervision for Health and Agriculture Program Managers

Jhpiege, Save the Children , 2012

In order to impact on the nutritional outcomes, there is a need to focus on nutrition-sensitive agriculture. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture involves the design and adoption of cropping and farming systems (crops and animal) which can provide agricultural solutions to the prevailing nutritional problems. Development agents (DAs) or agriculture extension workers (AEWs) are at the forefront to support farmers for improved agricultural production and better income. This nutrition-sensitive agriculture training aims at building the knowledge and skill of DAs in nutrition-sensitive agriculture so that they can promote agricultural and other related practices that maximize nutritional benefits. 

Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture: Participant Manual for Agriculture Development Agents

Save the Children , 2012

In order to impact on the nutritional outcomes, there is a need to focus on nutrition-sensitive agriculture. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture involves the design and adoption of cropping and farming systems (crops and animal) which can provide agricultural solutions to the prevailing nutritional problems. Development agents (DAs) or agriculture extension workers (AEWs) are at the forefront to support farmers for improved agricultural production and better income. This nutrition-sensitive agriculture training aims at building the knowledge and skill of DAs in nutrition-sensitive agriculture so that they can promote agricultural and other related practices that maximize nutritional benefits. 

Projet conjoint de lutte contre la malnutrition chronique - Module sur l'approche champ école paysan

FAO, Government of Zimbabwe , 2014

Le travail de vulgarisation a été traditionnellement perçu par la recherche et les services de vulgarisation comme un mécanisme pour transférer les technologies aux fermiers. Cette approche, toutefois, s’est montrée inadéquate dans des situations complexes où les fermiers doivent fréquemment ajuster leurs activités à des changements de conditions agro climatiques (protection de la récolte, gestion des éléments nutritifs du sol, etc ……). Certains atouts technologiques, transmis via une approche de haut en bas, étaient souvent trop complexes, chers et mal adaptés aux besoins des fermiers. Les agents de vulgarisation se sont rendus compte que les fermiers n’étaient pas suffisamment impliqués dans l’identification des problèmes, la sélection et l’expérimentation d’options, et l’évaluation des solutions possibles. Avec la baisse du support gouvernemental au travail de vulgarisation traditionnel, il devint clair que des méthodes alternatives étaient nécessaires pour identifier les problèmes auxquels faisaient face les fermiers et pour disséminer les technologies appropriées.

Maximising the Nutritional Impact of Food Security and Livelihoods Interventions

Geraldine Le Cuziat, Hanna Mattinen , 2011

This manual aims to provide practical guidance to field workers in order to maximise the nutritional impact of food security & livelihoods (FSL) interventions. This requires the systematic use of a ‘nutrition lens’ at each step of the project cycle and a close collaboration between sectors. The manual has its roots in ACF International strategy 2010-20151 and the FSL strategic outline for 2011-20152, and embodies the mandate of the organisation to fight hunger and to centre its efforts on undernutrition. It is also in line with the current international movement to put maternal and child nutrition at the forefront of the agenda to address the complex crisis of undernutrition in the perspective of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Integrating Gender-Responsive & Nutrition-Sensitive Approaches When Working with Farmer Groups Engaged in Markets

Bhawna Thapa , 2016

This Training of Trainers Manual has been designed for use by government, private, and NGO extension providers and rural development practitioners who will be planning and implementing village-level agricultural interventions to strengthen their capacity to integrate gender and nutrition sensitivity for men and women farmer groups engaged in markets. This manual has been adapted to meet the needs of extension workers who train lead farmers and famer groups engaged in markets, as well as other actors in the agricultural value chains such as traders, AgroVets,1 and Community Business Facilitators (CBFs)2. While this manual has been adapted to the context of the Mid-west (Banke and Surkhet districts) and Far-west (Dadeldhura and Kailali districts) regions of Nepal,3 it can also be used as a guide for trainers to adapt and modify to their distinct cultural and agricultural contexts. 

Institutional Review and Planning Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services - Handouts

Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper , 2016

Taller Introductorio de la Integración de Género y Nutrición en Servicios de Extensión Agrícola

Jan Henderson, Kathleen Colverson , 2016

Una Guía para el Facilitador 

Esta guía del facilitador ha sido preparada para proveedores de servicio de extensión públicos, privados y ONG’s para así fortalecer sus capacidades para dirigir el tema de género en una manera transformadora e integrar la sensibilización del tema nutrición en el diseño y facilitación de talleres y capacitaciones dirigidos a agricultores y agricultoras. La guía es un modelo… un marco de referencia para que el facilitador lo adapte y modifique según su cultura y entorno agrícola, así como para que incremente la comprensión de la integración del género y la nutrición en los programas de extensión agrícola existente. 

 

Introductory Workshop on Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services - Facilitator's Guide

Jan Henderson, Kathleen Colverson , 2016

This facilitator’s guide has been prepared for public, private, and NGO extension providers to strengthen their capacity to address gender in a transformative manner and to integrate nutrition sensitivity in designing and facilitating workshops and trainings for men and women farmers. The guide is a template…a framework for facilitators to adapt and modify to their distinct cultural and agricultural settings as they increase their understanding of integrating gender and nutrition into existing agricultural extension programming. 

Institutional Review and Planning Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services - Workbook

Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper , 2016

Institutional Review and Planning Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services

Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper , 2016

This handbook provides a framework to help leaders of agencies providing extension services to examine their organizational mission (and the results implied by it), to analyze if and how the strategy of extension services helps them to accomplish their mission, and to confront key operational challenges faced in providing quality services. It is written as a workshop guide with practical steps to engage in this analysis. Of particular importance is how organizations can more fully integratae nutrition- and gender-responsive programming in their routine outreach efforts. 

Improving Nutrition with Agricultural Biodiversity

Bioversity International , 2011

While the positive relationship between biodiversity, dietary diversity and health seems clear but based on anecdotal evidence, there is a pressing need for this relationship to be confirmed based on empirical evidence. Solutions to addressing the growing challenge of global malnutrition depend on innovations in policy and practice. Historically, dietary interventions have focused primarily on protein and calories, later on minerals and vitamins, and most recently on functional and healthful properties of foods, such as anti-oxidants. In each of these cases, a focus on single components within foods has frequently neglected the foods themselves as they fit into a food system and socio-cultural context. One important component missing from many complementary strategies aimed at scaling up nutrition interventions is agricultural biodiversity, also called agrobiodiversity, which applies a food systems approach to intervention strategies.

Improving Nutrition Through Diversified Foods Production and Utilization

JHPIEGO/Save the Children , -

This course is designed to provide agriculture TVET students the knowledge skil and attitude to enable them apply basic principles of human nutrion, promote and assist diversified agricultural foods production and consumption, and work in collaboration to address maternal and child malnutrition. The course is based on the nutrition core competencies identified for mid-level agriculture students and the principles of nutrition sensitive agricultural interventions and multisectoral collaboration for nutrition. 

Integrated Homestead Food Production

IFAD , 2015

Over the past years, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) has been increasingly proactive in enabling smallholder farmers across the developing world to increase production and productivity, while concurrently enhancing their access to markets and integration into the value chains. However, experience shows that productivity and income increases do not automatically translate into improved nutritional status, especially among women, young people and children. Around three quarters of undernourished people live in rural areas of developing countries and are those producing most of the food. Addressing nutritional issues is, therefore, crucial to combating rural poverty, feeding the world in a sustainable manner and ensuring a healthier future for the younger generations. Integrated homestead food production (IHFP) is one of the most promising pro-poor strategies to address undernutrition and specific nutritional deficits such as micronutrient deficiencies (Box 1). In a number of programmes in rural areas of all the developing regions, homestead gardens have been providing access to nutritious fresh food to households with relatively limited economic and productive assets. More recently, smallholder fish-farming has also become an important source of animal protein for poor households in rural areas.

Homestead Gardening

Catholic Relief Services , 2008

Homestead Gardening, Catholic Relief Services, 2008

This manual is intended for use by food security, nutrition, and livelihood programmers and practitioners for improved household food production and income generation. It represents a compilation of techniques and lessons learned from homestead gardening programs successfully implemented through the Consortium for Southern Africa Food Emergency (C-SAFE) in Lesotho. Many of the techniques described have been developed over time in a variety of countries and programs, and have been adapted in semi-arid and mountain climates in the southern lowlands of Lesotho. The success of the methodology has prompted Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Caritas Lesotho, and other partners to apply homestead gardening activities in other programs, such as the Mountain Orphan and Vulnerable Children Empowerment (MOVE) project.

Healthy Harvest

FAO, Government of Zimbabwe , 2015

Healthy Harvest, FAO, Government of Zimbabwe, 2015

A Training Manual for Community Workers in Growing, Preparing and Processing Nutritious Food

In 2006, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in close collaboration with the Food and Nutrition Council (FNC), the Nutrition Unit in the Ministry of Health and Child Care and AGRITEX in the Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development, developed the Healthy Harvest training manual as a tool for training community-based extension workers in good nutrition, the growing, preparing and processing of nutritious food. The manual has been used, since its publication, to train hundreds of government and NGO extension workers.

Agriculture, Nutrition and Health Essentials for Non-specialist Development Professionals

Jody Harris , 2011

Most delegates at the 2020 Conference Leveraging Agriculture for Improved Nutrition and Health were expert or programmatically active in agriculture, nutrition, or health, but very few had specialist expertise that crossed sectoral boundaries. A major finding of the conference was that a key barrier to integration between agriculture, nutrition and health professionals was a lack of understanding of the sectors in which participants were not active, and lack of a common ‘language’ with which to debate. This brief report aims to outline basic concepts and definitions, tools and indicators, and common interventions used by each development sector, in order to provide a baseline level of knowledge and understanding on which to build dialogue and collaboration. 

Getting Started: Running a Junior Farmer Field and Life School

FAO , 2007

In response to the growing number of orphans and vulnerable children, the Gender, Equity and Rural Employment Division (ESW) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in close collaboration with the World Food Programme (WFP), has supported the development and implementation of Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools (JFFLS) in various countries of East and Southern Africa over the past several years. In the process, information and training materials have been developed, and reports produced. This JFFLS Getting Started! manual is the culmination of experiences of many individuals, communities, and organizations in Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, and is the result of a significant commitment by numerous organizations and individuals over the past few years.

Food and Nutrition Security Training Module

Government of Sierra Leone , -

Food and Nutrition Security Training Module, Government of Sierra Leone, -

This Food and Nutrition Security Training Module has been prepared to guide training in which facilitators will help participants in Farmer Field Schools to learn more about nutrition. The training can be run by one or two facilitators who have knowledge and experience in training, using active participatory methods. The training is divided into five topics which can be covered on separate training days. The course

includes information on food security; following the guidelines for good nutrition using locally available nutritious foods; food needs of family members with special food needs (pregnant and lactating women, infants and children); and personal and environmental hygiene and food safety.

Food and Nutrition Handbook for Extension Workers

MAAIF Uganda , 2015

The handbook will help extension workers to:

  • Apply the Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) at household and the community levels.
  • Appreciate the importance of agriculture in improving nutrition and the implications of malnutrition to agricultural productivity.
  • Mainstream nutrition in their work plans and routine activities.

Nutrition Handbook for Farmer Field Schools

Ministry of Agriculture Malawi , 2015

Nutrition Handbook for Farmer Field Schools, Ministry of Agriculture Malawi, 2015

This handbook is written so that participating farmers and their families can equitably address food production and nutrition issues for good health. FFS participants are encouraged to share what they learn with farmers in their community, schools and other community groups so their whole community benefits. Persons working in extension support services such as Agricultural Extension Development Officers (AEDOs), Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs), and other service areas (Community Development, Forestry, Environmental Health, Teacher Development Centres, schools, etc.) can use the handbook to support farming families to diversify food production and utilization for better nutrition.

Farmer Nutrition School Session Guide

SPRING/Bangladesh , 2015

Farmer Nutrition School Session Guide, SPRING/Bangladesh, 2015

Agricultural officers and DANIDA agricultural experts were involved in developing and field-testing this manual, which is a project of the GoB agricultural departments. This guide was developed to help community members (both women and men) and community groups start and improve their technical understanding in the following areas: 

1. Vegetable farming, by improving the method of selecting sites, species and crops, preparation of beds and planting pits for planting vegetables, and through successful farm management; 

2. Rearing local chickens through improved semi-scavenging methods applying the techniques of using the improved hazol (brooding nest), early separation of chicks from the broody hen, using two to four layers of hygienic poultry shed and rearing chicks in cages or the multi-layer poultry shed, and ensuring balanced feeding and bio-security; 

3. Fish farming in homestead base ponds using semi-intensive composite carp culture techniques incorporating the small indigenous species, which have high nutritional values. 

Farmer Field School: Implementation Guide

FAO, JICA, and KFS , 2011

This guide builds on the three previous versions of the Farm Forestry Field School (FFFS) manual prepared by the Intensified Social Forestry Project in Semi Arid Areas (ISFP) of Kenya. The manual was first developed in a workshop setting with the participation of Kenya Forest Service (KFS) staff members and JICA experts at the onset of the ISFP in 2004. FAO was involved in the workshop providing technical assistance to design the FFFS implementation process, facilitate the workshops and compile workshop outputs into the manual. The ISFP conducted the manual review twice through workshops. The KFS field staff members who carried out the FFFS presented the reality of the field and issues faced by farmers. Such experience sharing enriched the entire project implementation process and subsequently this publication. FAO was tasked to finalize the reviews and was asked to carry out an independent external review in 2007.

Facilitators’ Guide for Running a Farmer Field School

James R. Okoth, Winfred Nalyongo, Alexis Bonte , 2010

Facilitators’ Guide for Running a Farmer Field School, James R. Okoth, Winfred Nalyongo, Alexis Bonte, 2010

An adaptation for a post emergency recovery programme

This manual has been developed for use by facilitators. The reader should not treat it as a step-by-step guide. Rather, it is a useful resource meant to be read before starting the FFS and then used as a reference along the way. It is not subject specific but provides key operational aspects of the FFS process. Therefore, the facilitator should not use this manual as a stand alone resource, but should obtain the respective enterprise-specific content from other sources.

 

Training Guide: Community Workers

Guyon A. et al , 2015

Training Guide: Community Workers, Guyon A. et al, 2015

The Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) framework was originally developed with the support of USAID, WHO and UNICEF, and has been implemented across Africa and Asia since 1997.11 The full ENA framework is an approach for managing the advocacy, planning and delivery of an integrated package of interventions to reach near universal coverage (>90%) in order to achieve public health impact. It promotes a “nutrition through the life cycle” approach to deliver the right services and messages to the right person at the right time using all relevant program platforms. It provides an operational framework for reducing “missed opportunities” both within12 and outside the health system for delivering nutrition messages and services.

Reference Materials on Key Practices: Community Workers

Guyon A. et al , 2015

The Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) framework was originally developed with the support of USAID, WHO and UNICEF, and has been implemented across Africa and Asia since 1997.11 The full ENA framework is an approach for managing the advocacy, planning and delivery of an integrated package of interventions to reach near universal coverage (>90%) in order to achieve public health impact.

It promotes a “nutrition through the life cycle” approach to deliver the right services and messages to the right person at the right time using all relevant program platforms. It provides an operational framework for reducing “missed opportunities” both within12 and outside the health system for delivering nutrition messages and services.

Reference Manual: Health Workers and Nutrition Managers

Guyon A. et al , 2013

The Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) framework was originally developed with the support of USAID, WHO and UNICEF, and has been implemented across Africa and Asia since 1997.11 The full ENA framework is an approach for managing the advocacy, planning and delivery of an integrated package of interventions to reach near universal coverage (>90%) in order to achieve public health impact.

It promotes a “nutrition through the life cycle” approach to deliver the right services and messages to the right person at the right time using all relevant program platforms. It provides an operational framework for reducing “missed opportunities” both within12 and outside the health system for delivering nutrition messages and services.

Designing for Behavior Change For Agriculture, Natural Resource Management, Health and Nutrition

Food Security and Nutrition Network Social and Behavioral Change Task Force , 2013

Designing for Behavior Change For Agriculture, Natural Resource Management, Health and Nutrition, Food Security and Nutrition Network Social and Behavioral Change Task Force., 2013

The Designing for Behavior Change (DBC) Curriculum responds to community development program managers’ and planners’ need for a practical behavioral framework that strategically aids them in planning for maximum effectiveness. The curriculum is built on the original BEHAVE Framework, developed by AED and expanded on by members of CORE Group's Social and Behavior Change (SBC) Working Group and the Food Security and Nutrition Network SBC Task Force. The curriculum trains participants to apply the DBC Framework to improve development programming. 

 Applied Basic Agri-nutrition Resource Toolkit for Trainers 

Republic of Kenya , 2013

የተቀና  የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች ማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና - ሞዱል ሁለት፡ የሠልጣኞች ማኑዋል

የኢትዮጵያ ፌደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ መንግስት የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር , 2014

የተቀና  የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች ማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና - ሞዱል ሁለት፡ የሠልጣኞች ማኑዋል, የኢትዮጵያ ፌደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ መንግስት የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር, 2004

ይህ የሠልጣኞች መመሪያ የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞችን የ10 ቀናት የተቀናጀ የማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና ዝርዝር ያካትታል፡፡ መመሪያው የስልጠናውን ክፍለ ትምህርት ዕቅዶች፣ የሠልጣኞችን ማስታወሻ ነጥቦች፣ የመስክ አተገባበር መመሪያዎችንና ቁልፍ መልዕክቶችን ይዟል፡፡ ስልጠናው የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች በተዋረድ የማህበረሰብ አቀፍ የጤና መልዕክተኞችን እንዲያሰለጥኑ ጭምር ታስቦ የተዘጋጀ ነው፡፡ 

የተቀና  ማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና ለጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች

የኢትዮጵያ ፌደራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ መንግስት የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር , 2004

የተቀና  ማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና ለጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች - ሞዱል ሁለት፡ የአሠልጣኞች መመሪያ, የኢትዮጵያ ፌደራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ መንግስት የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር, 2004

ይህ የአሠልጣኞች መመሪያ የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞችን የ10 ቀናት የተቀናጀ የማጠናከሪያ ሥልጠና ዝርዝር ያካትታል፡፡ መመሪያው የስልጠናውን ክፍለ ጊዜ ዕቅዶች፣ የአሰልጣኞችን ማስታወሻ ነጥቦች፣ የመስክ አተገባበር መመሪያዎችንና ቁልፍ መልዕክቶችን ይዟል፡፡ ሥልጠናው የጤና ኤክስቴንሽን ሠራተኞች በተዋረድ የማህበረሰብ አቀፍ የጤና መልዕክተኞችን እንዲያሰለጥኑ ጭምር ታስቦ የተዘጋጀ ነው፡፡ 

Linking Agriculture and Nutrition for Healthy and Strong Ethiopian Families

Hawassa University , 2015

Agriculture Development Agents Facilitator's Manual

This facilitators manual is developed for the use of the Master Trainers (MT) when training agricultural development agents (DA’s) on the importance of the contribution of the agricultural sector to improved nutritional outcomes to build healthy and strong Ethiopian families.

Applied Basic Agri-nutrition Resource Manual for Trainers

Republic of KenyaVersion , 2013

The Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, in collaboration with nutrition partners, launched the SUN at a symposium in November 2012. This initiative aligns well with the Nutrition Action Plan recently drafted by USAID-KHCP that is being rolled out in phases across all Feed the Future (FTF) counties. It relies on effective collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation by utilizing the services of the personnel within the existing structure to provide practical training on household nutrition and dietary diversity with communities upported by the project. The collaboration with the two ministries will draw from their existing expertise, the community strategy, and the country nutrition focus, and will utilize and strengthen already existing structures.

Nutrition Training Manual for Health and Agriculture Workers at Community Level in Ethiopia

Africa Rising , 2016

Purpose of this manual 

  • To equip health and agriculture workers at communities level with the knowledge, attitude and communication skills. 
  • Create awareness on nutrition component of agriculture-nutrition interventions that provides appropriate services, including well-tailored and comprehensive nutrition education, to address specific, local malnutrition issues. 
  • Describe the type of interventions that promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture and how to integrate them into their daily activities. 
  • Use the tools to counsel farmers on nutrition-sensitive agricultural interventions. 

Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture Farmer Training

ACDIVOCA , 2001

Training-of-Trainers Facilitator's Guide

This three-day workshop on nutrition aims to increase participants’ nutrition knowledge in the context of agricultural training. The main purpose is to promote adoption of key nutritional messages among farmers through the use of appropriate analogies. As such, this workshop trains lead farmers (LF) through a training-of-trainers (ToT) format. After the ToT, LFs will train other farmers who are members of their cooperatives on key nutrition topics. 

A Practical Nutrtion Guide for Community Development Workers

Ruth Tshin , 2013

An "agriculutre-nutrition gap" exists due to agricultrual development primarily focusing on poverty alleviation and not focusing on producing adequate nutrients to improve the household nutrition. Community development workgers have seen agricultural yields and household incomes increase but high malnutrition is still prevalent in communities where they work (Jayakumar 2014). Women play a key role in maintaining and improving household practices leading to good helath. Additionally, they need adequate groth-nutrients like protein, zinc, sulfur, and magnesium from early childhood onwards and from pregnancy to their children's early childhood. A well-nourished mother can then pass on health benefits to her children particularly in the first 1000 days of life, where lack of nutrition will significally impact a child's ability to fight infections and develop cognitive abilites into their adulthood.

Nutritional Impact Assessment Tool - Guidance

IYCN , 2011

The PATH-led Infant & Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project has developed the Nutritional Impact Assessment Tool for project designers to use during the design phase of agricultural projects. Much as environmental and gender impact assessments are now standard practice in project planning to prompt consideration of the project’s likely impacts in those areas, a nutritional impact assessment prompts consideration of a project’s impacts on the nutrition of vulnerable groups.

Nutritional Impact Assessment Tool

IYCN , 2011

This tool assists agriculture project designers in assessing an agriculture project’s likely impacts on the nutrition of vulnerable groups. Please refer to the accompanying Nutritional Impact Assessment Tool Guidance for instructions on how to use the tool.

Global Review of Good Agricultural Extension and Advisory Service Practices

Burton E. Swanson , 2008

The perceived lack of success of public agricultural extension systems in many countries has resulted in new approaches being tried in reorganizing extension services. In some countries, such as India and China, public extension systems have been decentralized to the district/county level and these public extension systems are now pursuing a more market-driven approach. In other countries, different models have been tried, involving both private-sector firms and civil society organizations (CSOs), in an attempt to find more effective approaches of providing basic extension services. Also, in some countries, there have been attempts to shift more of the cost of extension services to the farmers themselves, with limited success. This paper provides a framework for analyzing the success or failure of different approaches within the agricultural development process in providing particular extension services to different categories of farmers.

Whose Job Is It? Integrating Agriculture and Nutrition in Public Sector Agricultural Extension Services

Vickie A. Sigman , 2015

Nutrition-sensitive agriculture (Box 1) has the attention and is increasingly promoted by national governments and the global development community. This is exemplified in Feed the Future (FTF), the U.S. Government’s initiative to sustainably reduce global hunger and poverty. It is embodied in FTF’s twin objectives: inclusive agricultural sector growth and improved nutritional status especially of women and children. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture is a means towards achieving these objectives (Ruel, Alderman, & the Maternal Child and Nutrition Study Group, 2013).

Improving the Nutritional Impact of Extension Services in Rural Africa

Gustaaf P. Sevenhuysen , 1985

Experience in nutrition interventions points to several design characteristics of field programmes which could improve their effectiveness. Regular government extension services have the potential to reach large numbers of people, yet staff will require additional training to respond to the changing demands of field work. A new approach to training such staff has been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization. The approach provides staff with information and managerial skills that are common to all extension work. The practical examples used to introduce these techniques illustrate nutritional problems that fieldworkers face and give a measure of confidence in finding solutions. Training materials based on this approach are presently used by several governments.

Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture What Have We Learned and Where Do We Go from Here?

Marie T. Ruel, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Mysbah Balagamwala , 2017

Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture What Have We Learned and Where Do We Go from Here?, Marie T. Ruel, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Mysbah Balagamwala, 2017

A growing number of governments, donor agencies, and development organizations are committed to supporting nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) to achieve their development goals. Although consensus exists on pathways through which agriculture may influence nutrition-related outcomes, empirical evidence on agriculture’s contribution to nutrition and how it can be enhanced is still weak. This paper reviews recent empirical evidence (since 2014), including findings from impact evaluations of a variety of NSA programs using experimental designs as well as observational studies that document linkages between agriculture, women’s empowerment, and nutrition. It summarizes existing knowledge regarding not only impacts but also pathways, mechanisms, and contextual factors that affect where and how agriculture may improve nutrition outcomes. The paper concludes with reflections on implications for agricultural programs, policies, and investments, and highlights future research priorities.

Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services: Frontline Contributors to the Nutrition Decade

Edye Kuyper, Laina Schneider , 2016

There is growing interest in better leveraging agricultural extension and advisory services (AEAS) for nutrition-sensitive agriculture (Fanzo et al. 2015; GFRAS 2016a). Pluralistic AEAS (defined in Box 1) includes public, non-governmental organization (NGO), and private sector entities that regularly interact with millions of farmers. For readers who are more familiar with health programming, AEAS play a role similar to community health workers (CHWs). It should be noted, however, that AEAS typically engage farming households with the potential to produce a marketable surplus (USAID 2016), whereas CHWs focus on populations most vulnerable to poor health. Enlisting AEAS as vital partners in the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition is essential to realizing the Sustainable Development Goals and 2025 World Health Assembly targets. They are the foot soldiers positioned to play a key role in realizing healthier food systems. Their specific contributions, however, must build on their core competencies and will only be realized when there is alignment between programmatic, market and policy incentives.

Conceptualizing the Contribution of Agricultural Extension Services to Nutrition

Edye Kuyper, Laina Schneider , 2016

There is growing global interest in better leveraging Agricultural Extension Services (AES) as a foundation for food and nutrition security. Pluralistic AES (defined in Box 1) consist of rural, agriculturally focused extension and advisory services implemented by public, NGO, and private-sector entities. They reach millions of farmers and represent largely untapped potential for influencing production and consumption decisions which could, in turn, affect the health and nutrition status of populations, particularly in rural areas. Their specific contributions, however, are only beginning to be articulated and evaluated.

This discussion paper addresses the specific contribution that AES can make to food and nutrition security in a way that is consistent with AES’s primary functions. It is particularly focused on the scope of the INGENAES project and the context of the Feed the Future countries within which the project operates.

Sierra Leone: Landscape Analysis

Festus O. Amadu, Colby Silvert, Cortney Eisenmann, Katy Mosiman, and Ruiting Liang , 2017

Sierra Leone: Landscape Analysis, Festus O. Amadu, Colby Silvert, Cortney Eisenmann, Katy Mosiman, and Ruiting Liang, 2017

This analysis was prepared under the framework of the Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services (INGENAES) project is funded through the Bureau for Food Security (BFS) of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to support the United States Government Global Feed the Future (FTF) Initiative1. FTF strives to increase agricultural productivity and the incomes of both men and women in rural areas who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods.

Uganda: Landscape Analysis

Michael Wallace , 2016

Uganda: Landscape Analysis, Michael Wallace, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Uganda’s agriculture, a review of the country’s extension system, and information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in Uganda with a special focus on rural areas. In addition, it summarizes the country’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and reviews several on-going projects related to agricultural extension, gender and nutrition by USAID and other technical and financial partners in the country.

Tanzania: Landscape Analysis

Lacey Harris-Coble , 2016

Tanzania: Landscape Analysis, Lacey Harris-Coble, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Tanzania’s agriculture and the status of country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. It summarizes Tanzania’s current agricultural and nutrition policy, and provides a summary of several on-going projects by the United States Government (USG) and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Senegal: Landscape Analysis

Elizabeth Poulsen , 2015

Senegal: Landscape Analysis, Elizabeth Poulsen, 2015

This landscape study provides an overview of agriculture in Senegal as well as the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. In addition, it summarizes Senegal’s current agriculture and nutrition policy, and it reviews several on-going projects by the U.S. government and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, gender, and nutrition.

Rwanda: Landscape Analysis

Kristen J. Augustine , 2016

Rwanda: Landscape Analysis, Kristen J. Augustine, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of issues that may influence how INGENAES’ project objectives are implemented in Rwanda. All of rural Rwanda and 27 out of 30 districts in the country, are included in Feed the Future’s Zone of Influence, excluding only three districts in Kigali City (Feed the Future, 2011). This report starts by providing general information on the historical and development contexts, geography, and demographics of the country. It next delves into the gender dynamics impacting Rwandans and the current health and nutrition status for the nation. A summary of issues that are currently impacting Rwandan’s land rights, including recent laws that impact greatly on agricultural capacity, leads into an overview of the agricultural sector and how women in particular are faring. This is followed by information pertaining to recent reforms to how extension information and services are delivered as well as a number of gaps that still remain. The narrative concludes with a description of Feed the Future’s Multi-Year Strategy and a summary of USAID’s Country Development Cooperation Strategy.

Mozambique: Landscape Analysis

Hans Goertz , 2016

This report is designed as a reference document to assist the kick-off teams in launching exploratory activities in the target country in response to the USAID Feed the Future mission’s invitation. This report provides an overview of the current status of Mozambique’s agriculture as well as the country’s status in relation to the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues. The report examines and summarizes Mozambique’s agricultural and nutrition policy, and USAID’s strategic goals and objectives for the country. Since democratic elections in 1992, Mozambique has been a focal point for governance and development initiatives. This report provides a summary of on-going agricultural projects by the U.S. Government and other donors in the country.

Mali: Landscape Analysis

Sarah Anne Ward , 2016

Mali: Landscape Analysis, Sarah Anne Ward, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Mali’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. The report summarizes Mali’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and details the strategic goals and objectives of USAID and other donors in the country. The report provides a summary of the on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Malawi: Landscape Analysis

Elizabeth Poulsen , 2016

Malawi: Landscape Analysis, Elizabeth Poulsen, 2016

This landscape analysis is an overview of key gender, nutrition and agricultural extension issues in Malawi. It contributes to the knowledge base of Feed the Future countries for both the INGENAES team and country extension and development practitioners. It begins with an overview of Malawian geography, culture, and poverty status. It then provides a description of the Malawian agricultural sector, the national agriculture strategy, and women’s involvement in agriculture; food security and nutrition issues in the country; and the national nutrition strategy. In addition, the analysis provides details on the Feed the Future approach in Malawi and how USAID’s country strategy supports Feed the Future activities. The final section of the report includes descriptions of various projects that are relevant to the INGENAES program.

Liberia: Landscape Analysis

Austin Alcorn Peterson , 2016

Liberia: Landscape Analysis, Austin Alcorn Peterson, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Liberia’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. It summarizes Liberia’s current agricultural and nutrition policy. This report provides a summary of several on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Kenya: Landscape Analysis

Elizabeth PoulsenVersion , 2016

Kenya: Landscape Analysis, Elizabeth Poulsen, 2016

This analysis begins with an overview of Kenyan geography, culture, and poverty status. It then provides a description of the Kenyan agricultural sector, the national agriculture strategy, and women’s involvement in agriculture; food security and nutrition issues in the country; and the national nutrition strategy. In addition, the landscape analysis provides details on the Feed the Future approach in Kenya and how USAID’s country strategy supports Feed the Future and potentially INGENAES. The final section of the report includes descriptions of various projects that are relevant to INGENAES.

Honduras: Landscape Analysis

Rebecca J. Williams , 2016

Honduras: Landscape Analysis, Rebecca J. Williams, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Honduras’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also contains information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. The report summarizes Honduras’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and details the strategic goals and objectives of USAID and other donors in the country. The report provides a summary of the on-going projects by the United States Government (USG) and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Haiti: Landscape Analysis

Hans Goertz , 2016

Haiti: Landscape Analysis, Hans Goertz, 2016

This landscape analysis provides an overview of the current status of Haiti’s agriculture as well as the country’s status in relation to the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues. It contributes to the knowledge base of Feed the Future countries for both the INGENAES team and country extension and development practitioners. The report examines and summarizes Haiti’s agricultural and nutrition policy, and USAID’s strategic goals and objectives for the country. Since the 2010 earthquake, Haiti has been a focal point for development and reconstruction initiatives. This report provides a summary of on-going agricultural projects by the U.S. Government and other donors in the country.

Guatemala: Landscape Analysis

Kristen J. AugustineVersion: , 2016

Guatemala: Landscape Analysis, Kristen J. Augustine, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of issues related to INGENAES’ project objectives in Guatemala. The report gives a summary of country-wide issues but focuses particular attention on the Western Highlands where indigenous populations are the majority, and where Feed the Future is concentrating efforts under the umbrella of the USAID-led Western Highlands Integrated Program (WHIP). This report pays specific attention to the indigenous population of the Western Highlands and to the women of those communities. A 2013 baseline survey was conducted in the WHIP Zone of Influence (ZOI) to help determine the impact of WHIP projects. The data collected is particularly relevant to those intending to work in the Western Highlands and, as such, is frequently referenced in this report.

Ghana: Landscape Analysis

Antionette McFarlane , 2016

Ghana: Landscape Analysis, Antionette McFarlane, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of Ghana’s agriculture and the status of country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. It summarizes Ghana’s current agricultural and nutrition policy. This report provides a summary of several on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Ethiopia: Landscape Analysis

Elizabeth Poulsen, July Dayane Nelson , 2016

Ethiopia: Landscape Analysis, Elizabeth Poulsen, July Dayane Nelson, 2016

The Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services (INGENAES) project is funded through the Bureau for Food Security of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to support the Presidential Feed the Future Initiative, which strives to increase agricultural productivity and the incomes of both men and women in rural areas who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. This report is a reference document that aims to provide an overview of the current status of Ethiopia’s agriculture as well as the country’s status in relation to the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues. The report summarizes Ethiopia’s agricultural, gender, and nutrition policy, and USAID’s strategic goals and objectives for the country in these areas.

Burundi: Landscape Analysis

Nargiza S. Ludgate, Joyous S. Tata , 2015

Burundi: Landscape Analysis, Nargiza S. Ludgate, Joyous S. Tata, 2015

This landscape study provides an overview of Burundi’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. The report summarizes Burundi’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and details the strategic goals and objectives of USAID and other donors in the country. Finally, since the end of the 1993-2005 war, Burundi hosted a number of United States Government (USG) funded projects aimed at rebuilding the war-devastated nation and economy. The report provides a summary of the on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Nepal: Landscape Analysis

Bhawna Thapa , 2015

Nepal: Landscape Analysis, Bhawna Thapa, 2015

This landscape study provides an overview of Nepal’s agriculture and the status of the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition and gender related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. It summarizes Nepal’s current agricultural and nutrition policy and details the strategic goals and objectives of USAID and other donors in the country. This report provides a summary of on-going projects by the USG and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, and gender and nutrition impacts.

Cambodia: Landscape Analysis

Katie McNamara , 2016

Cambodia: Landscape Analysis, Katie McNamara, 2016

This landscape study provides an overview of agriculture in Cambodia as well as the country’s extension system. It also provides information on the prevalence of poverty, nutrition, and gender-related issues in the country with special focus on rural areas. In addition, it summarizes Cambodia’s current agriculture and nutrition policy, and it also reviews several on-going projects by the U.S. government and other donors in the country related to agriculture extension, gender, and nutrition.

Using Agriculture Extension Agents to Promote Nutrition: A Process Review of Three Feed the Future Activities in Ethiopia

Aakesson, A., V. Pinga, S. Titus , 2014

In March and April 2014 , the Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project conducted a rapid, participatory process review to document experience and learning from activities that are utilizing a common strategy to promote nutrition through Feed the Future agriculture investments in Ethiopia. This strategy involves training agriculture development agents (DAs) to deliver nutrition social and behavior change (SBC) messages and interventions to support the integration of nutrition and agriculture. This review examined the experience of three Feed the Future activities: Empowering New Generations to Improve Nutrition and Economic Opportunities (ENGINE), Agricultural Growth Program – Agribusiness and Market Development Project (AGP-AMDe), and Pastoralist Resiliency Improvement and Market Expansion (PRIME). Capturing the process in Ethiopia contributes to the Feed the Future learning agenda and may also help refine agriculture-nutrition approaches in current and future activities around the world.

Integration of Nutrition Into Extension and Advisory Services: A Synthesis of Experiences, Lessons, and Recommendations

FAO , 2017

The need for nutrition-sensitive agriculture is well recognized and of growing interest to global development players. Extension and advisory services (EAS), with their established infrastructure, provide a unique opportunity for nutrition interventions to be implemented at scale with significant reach.  To assess current integration of nutrition in EAS, document training provided to EAS agents, and identify challenges and opportunities for the integration of nutrition.  Methods: A mixed methodology was used, which included a systematic literature review covering the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Agris, Google Scholar, Econlit, and IBSS. In addition, online surveys and semistructured key informant interviews with stakeholders were performed. Data were collected between December 2012 and June 2013.

Integration of Nutrition in Agriculture Extension Services in Africa

Jessica Fanzo et al , 2015

Linking agricultural extension and advisory service (EAS) with participatory learning and action on nutrition and health has the potential to improve the sustainability and impact of food and agricultural programmes on nutrition and household food security. Due to their established structure/network and their greater reach to the community of whom they often already have the trust, agricultural extension and advisory workers (EAW) are probably the best resource to help achieve nutrition security through nutrition education to farmers. In  order to do so, the extension workers must receive nutrition and nutrition education training. This desk review aims at mapping how nutrition is currently being mainstreamed into agricultural EAS preOservice and inOservice training and to give recommendation on the way forward.

Extension Options for Better Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction: A Selected Review 2012–2015

Kristin Davis, Steven Franzel, David J. Spielman , 2016

The context in which extension operates has changed dramatically in recent decades. As a result, there is a renewed interest in extension and an interest in changing traditional approaches to extension. With that renewed interest comes demand for information and analysis. 

The overall goal of this report is to provide up-to-date information on key topics related to extension knowledge and perspectives and to enable decision makers to identify areas where (1) further evidence on extension through commissioned research is needed, and (2) extension investment practices should be reconsidered. 

Assessment of Agricultural Extension, Nutrition Education, and Integrated Agriculture-nutrition Extension Services in the Feed the Future Districts in Malawi 

Vickie Sigman, Valerie Rhoe, John Peters, Theresa Banda, Grace Malindi , 2014

In April 2014, at the invitation of USAID/Malawi, a MEAS team conducted an assessment of agricultural extension, nutrition education, and integrated agriculture-nutrition programs and systems in Malawi. An overarching purpose of the assessment is to investigate these programs and systems across public, private, and civil society sector providers with the aim of informing the design of an activity that will strengthen delivery of extension and nutrition outreach services in the seven Feed the Future focus districts in a coordinated and integrated manner. 

The assessment methodology includes literature review, interviews and field visits, and an assessment review workshop. The team reviewed agriculture extension, nutrition, and integrated programming literature; carried-out over 55 individual and group interviews; and made field trips to three districts. The review workshop, in which over 25 stakeholders from across sectors participated, was held to present preliminary findings of the assessment and obtain further input from stakeholders. 

Agricultural Extension Approaches Being Implemented in Ghana

Directorate of Agricultural Extension Services of Ghana , -

Agricultural Extension Approaches Being Implemented in Ghana, Directorate of Agricultural Extension Services of Ghana, -

In Ghana, majority (60%) of the population lives in rural areas and depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihood and survival. Agriculture plays an important role in economic growth, food security, poverty reduction, livelihoods, rural development and the environment (Green et al., 2005). Growth in the agricultural sector stimulates higher rates of growth in the economy through forward linkage activities such as processing and transportation, and backward linkages like the provision of services to the sector, with further growth spurred as a result of spending incomes earned from all these productive activities (MoFA, 2003; UN, 2008; Winter-Nelson and Aggrey-Fynn, 2008).

A Review of the Effectiveness of Agriculture Interventions in Improving Nutrition Outcomes

Peter R Berti, Julia Krasevec, Sian FitzGerald , 2008

Objectives: To review the impact of agriculture interventions on nutritional status in participating households, and to analyse the characteristics of interventions that improved nutrition outcomes. Design: We identified and reviewed reports describing 30 agriculture interventions that measured impact on nutritional status. The interventions reviewed included home gardening, livestock, mixed garden and livestock, cash cropping, and irrigation. We examined the reports for the scientific quality of the research design and treatment of the data.We also assessed whether the projects invested in five types of ‘capital’ (physical, natural, financial, human and social) as defined in the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, a conceptual map of major factors that affect people’s livelihoods.

A Global Survey and Review of Farmer Field School Experiences

Arnoud Braun, Janice Jiggins, Niels Röling, Henk van den Berg, Paul Snijders , 2006

A Global Survey and Review of Farmer Field School Experiences, Arnoud Braun, Janice Jiggins, Niels Röling, Henk van den Berg, Paul Snijders, 2006

Farmer Field Schools evolved initially to address the challenge of ecological heterogeneity and local specificity in pest management, by supporting ecologically-informed decision-making by farmers that would allow them to reduce pesticide use, improve crop management and secure better profit margins. 

Classic FFSs rely for their effects on the development of learner-centred curricula for experiential learning that takes place in the field, allowing producers to observe, measure, analyse, assess and interpret key agro-ecosystem relationships as the basis for making informed management decisions. The adult education concepts and principles that underlie the design of curricula and of the learning cycle process have proven robust in all areas where FFSs have been developed. 

Rural Agricultural Development Innovation for Food and Nutrition Security: Findings from a Study in Tanzania

Jens M. Vesterager et.al. , 2013

Sub-Saharan Africa remains the world’s most food-insecure region in spite of its abundant agricultural potential. In an attempt to contribute towards overcoming this problem, an agricultural development approach known as RIPAT (Rural Initiatives for Participatory Agricultural Transformation) has been developed over the period since 2006 through a series of projects in northern Tanzania. 

It has for decades been anticipated by development actors that pro-poor agricultural development interventions would be the direct route to improved nutrition among smallholder farm families. However, it is difficult to find evidence that documents such linkage – partly because of poor quality evaluations, but also because it has been realised that agricultural development interventions must be designed to a much larger extent with a nutritional lens and must take into account what types of agricultural component can lead to improved nutrition. We provide research evidence of improved rural food and nutrition security following the application of the RIPAT approach. 

Linking Agriculture and Nutrition Education to Improve Infant and Young Child Feeding: Lessons for Future Programmes

Ellen Muehlhoff1 et.al. , 2016

Agriculture and food systems play a central role in nutrition by supplying nutritious, healthy and affordable foods. When integrated with nutrition education for behaviour change, agricultural interventions that supply diverse affordable foods from all food groups have great scope for improving young child and family diets. In 2014, process reviews were conducted in Cambodia and Malawi of food security projects that provided agricultural support and community‐based nutrition education on improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF). In both countries, household visits were carried outwithmothers/caregivers, and interviews and FocusGroupDiscussions (FGDs)were conductedwith purposively selected project stakeholders (53 in Cambodia, 170 inMalawi), including government staff from the agriculture and health sectors. Results highlight that adoption of improved IYCF practices was facilitated by participation in nutrition education and practical cooking sessions, and supportive family and community structures. Barriers faced by families and caregivers were identified, such as women's workload and lack of access to high quality foods, namely fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and animal source foods. Implementation challenges regarding coordination of cross‐sectoral targeting strategies and capacities of extension services to sustain community‐ based IYCF nutrition education need to be addressed to improve programme effectiveness and impact. The project lessons from Cambodia and Malawi are useful for integrated agriculture IYCF nutrition education programmes to help ensure better young child nutrition outcomes.

Integrating Nutrition in Farmer Field Schools in Eastern Africa

Elizabeth Nafula Kuria , 2014

Eastern and Central Africa continue to face acute and chronic food and nutrition insecurity1. Combined with a high incidence of HIV, food security continues to affect the nutrition and health status of poor households. There is growing recognition of the vital importance of expanding agricultural development capacity to include nutrition objectives, particularly in agricultural extension and training. The adoption of participatory extension approaches, such as the Farmer Field School (FFS), provides additional opportunities to move agricultural development beyond productivity and yield goals to more effectively contributing to improved nutritional outcomes.

Agricultural Technology Adoption, Food Security, Poverty and Child Health

Anna Folke Larsen , 2015

The three self-contained chapters of this dissertation evolves around different aspects of a Farmer Field School intervention taking place in northern Tanzania, studying the diffusion of agricultural technologies and how agriculture links to food security, poverty and child health. The intervention is called RIPAT (Rural Initiatives for Participatory Agricultural Transformation) and was funded by the Rockwool Foundation. As a consultant for the Rockwool Foundation I administered a large scale data collection for an impact evaluation of RIPAT.

All three chapters of my dissertation build on these data. The first two chapters are coauthored with Helene Bie Lilleør. A recurrent theme in this dissertation is the identification of causal effects. Since participation in RIPAT is voluntary, the data does not offer direct experimental variation which I can exploit for identification, and there exists no baseline data collected before the implementation of RIPAT I to control for selection. I pursue different identification strategies which are detailed in the three chapters. In the following, I provide a preview of the findings.

Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India

Suneetha Kadiyala, Emily H. Morgan, Shruthi Cyriac, Amy Margolies, Terry Roopnaraine , 2016

Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India, Suneetha Kadiyala, Emily H. Morgan, Shruthi Cyriac, Amy Margolies, Terry Roopnaraine, 2016

Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutritionspecific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages.

Gender and Nutrition Measurement Tools: Evaluating Their Appropriateness in the Context of Zambia

Rhoda Mofya-Mukuka, Mulako Kabisa , 2017

Zambia remains one of the countries with the highest levels of malnutrition on the African continent, despite increasing investment to curb the situation. Similarly, Zambia continues to perform poorly on gender equality. Evidence from the Zambian Demographic Health Survey reveals that in comparison to men, women have less education, lower literacy levels, and less exposure to mass media, which directly affects their position in their households as well as society (CSO 2015).

Indigenous Wild Food Plants in Home Gardens: Improving Health and Income - With the Assistance of Agricultural Extension 

Robert L. Freedman , 2015

The wide-spread presence of home gardens, in developing nations is a strong foundation for food security, both in terms of quantity and quality. Indigenous wild food plants are a rich source of health-giving micronutrients, which are missing from highly refined fast/convenience foods the growing reliance on which has caused an ever-increasing occurrence of dietary-related diseases. A simple solution to resolving micronutrient malnutrition is the transplanting of neglected and underutilized plant species (NUS) into home gardens. These plants can also be sold in local markets providing additional family income. Agricultural extension personnel can play an influential role in promoting the transplanting process by presenting workshops for women farmers and home makers. Guidelines and resources for these workshops are given below.

Research Into Men’s Perceptions of Their Roles and Involvement in Household Decisions Around Food in Rural Bangladesh

Suzanna Smith , 2016

Like other INGENAES activities, this research activity aims toward the larger goal of building gender-responsive agricultural extension and advisory services and as a result, improving women farmers’ agricultural productivity and household nutrition. This particular project expanded the overall INGENAES focus by bringing men into the picture, specifically, looking at men’s perspective on their roles in meeting household nutritional needs and their preferences for nutrition-sensitive extension approaches. In addition, this project sought out information from men and women about gender roles and particularly transformations in gender roles taking place in rural villages that might affect nutritional outcomes.

Characterization of Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices amongstRural Farmers Engaged in Agricultural Extension Services in the Dry Corridor of Honduras

Juan Andrade , 2017

Poverty is the basic cause of undernutrition and undernutrition contributes to the vicious cycle of poverty. Honduras is a low middle-income country located in Central America facing major development challenges. According to the World Bank, more than 63 percent of the population lived in poverty in 2014. Poverty disproportionately affects the rural areas, where approximately six out of 10 households live in extreme poverty, or on less than US$2.50 per day.1 Moreover food security in Honduras is threatened by high probability of tropical storms and hurricanes, droughts, floods and landslides, deforestation, and frequent mild earthquakes.

Analyzing the Gender Sensitivity of Rural Advisory Services in Bangladesh

M. Wakilur Rahman, Nishith Zahan Tanny, M. Serajul Islam , 2017

Analyzing the Gender Sensitivity of Rural Advisory Services in Bangladesh, M. Wakilur Rahman, Nishith Zahan Tanny, M. Serajul Islam, 2017

Gender relations in Bangladesh have been undergoing a process of considerable transformation over the past thirty years as part of a broader process of economic transition and societal change. Women farmers made up 40 percent of the total agricultural labor force in 2010, with a 7 percent growth in women’s participation in agriculture between 2005 and 2010 (Akter et.al., 2015). Evidence shows that the wage difference between men and women in agriculture decreased from 40% to 30% for the year 2011/12 to 2013/14, which can be taken as a positive change (FPMU, 2015; BBS Monthly Bulletin, 2015), although the gap is still very high. Despite such progress, Bangladeshi women are still primarily considered to be unpaid family labor (56.3% of women in the labor force), and their contributions to agriculture are not fully recognized, neither in the household and communities nor at the national level (SFYP, 2015).

Analysis of Indicators and Measurement Tools Used in Zambia to Assess Impact of Agricultural Extension Programs on Gender Equity and Nutrition Outcomes

Rhoda Mofya-Mukuka, Mulako Kabisa , 2016

In Zambia, investment in agricultural extension with a focus on gender equity and nutrition outcomes has been increasing, and in the last decade, several organizations have replicated projects in different geographical areas. However, with persistent high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies still being recorded especially among children below the age of five, it is either these initiatives have little impact on reducing malnutrition, they are not sufficient, the correct programs are not being implemented, and/or the methods used to measure the impact may be inappropriate.

Smallholder Agriculture’s Contribution to Better Nutrition

Steve Wiggins, Sharada Keats , 2013

Smallholder agriculture can potentially affect food security and nutrition through the following pathways: 

  1. Making food available through production; 
  2. Reducing the real cost of food by increasing the supply of food. The composition of production also matters, since this affects the availability and prices of different foods with their varying nutrients; 
  3. Generating incomes for farmers and those working the land as labourers, that allow access to food; and through 
  4. Providing incomes to others in the rural economy from linkages in production and consumption that create additional activity and jobs. 

The Role of Agriculture: Producing Food to Nourish People?

Global Nutrition , 2016

This factsheet is the second publication by generation nutrition looking at the differentways of preventing child undernutrition. It explains howagricultural programmes in developing countries can have a bigger impact in reducing undernutrition and, in doing so, fulfil one of the sectors main roles: to provide people with the nutritious food they need for a healthy and productive life.

Integrating Agriculture and Nutrition Education for Improved Young Child Nutrition

FAO , 2016

Given that the emphasis on enhancing agriculture’s impact on nutrition is relatively new, some key knowledge gaps exist on the relative mix of components and the extent of their integration that make implementation most effective. The institutional aspects of programme delivery, technical capacities and inter-sectoral collaboration required are also not well understood. Questions remain regarding the design and implementation of nutrition education for behaviour change and what makes such interventions work, how they can be sustained and scaled up, and at what cost? Much work remains to be done to know exactly what to do and how to do it, and to determine where the greatest opportunities are. In other words, it is important to know which type of programmes deliver the greatest benefit to target beneficiaries and are likely to have the greatest impact.

Nutrition-sensitive Agriculture Programming

Mercy Corps , 2015

The guidance is designed for non-nutrition specialists. It helps agriculturalists avoid unintentionally harming the nutritional status of target households and boost nutrition whenever possible. It includes:

Nutrition Sensitivity: How Agriculture Can Improve Child Nutrition

Save the Children , 2014

There is broad consensus on the need to scale up nutrition-specific interventions– ie, direct nutrition interventions such as promoting exclusive breastfeeding, infant and young child feeding, or greater coverage of vitamin A. But the limited evidence base on nutrition-sensitive approaches makes it difficult for agriculture, social protection and other relevant policies to take account of their potential impact on nutrition. There is an urgent need to strengthen the nutritional component of many agricultural policies and investment plans.2 A role of agricultural policy is to promote economic development and provide nutrition for a country’s population. CAADP plans should include a nutrition strategic objective supported by clearly defined indicators. The indicators should be differentiated by gender and age group (adult and child).

Nutrition Core Competences for Mid-Level Animal and Plant Science Disciplines at Agriculture Technical Vocational Education and Training Colleges in Ethiopia

Jhpiego , 2012

Ethiopio is one of the 36 countries with the highest burden of malnutrition in the world. In recent years, the country has improved the underweight and stunting trends in under-five children, for which rates of stunting and under-weight decreased by 14% and 12% respectively, between 2000 and 2011; while prevalence of vasting did not show significant progress over the past 11 years. Currently, more then 4 out of 10 under-five children are still chronically malnutritioned, and nutrition has become one of the major national agenda items that need multi-sectoral coordination. The Empowering New Generations to Improve Nutrition and Economic Opportunities (EGNE) project iw working to strengthen mulit-sector coordination and build capacity at the policy and implementation levels, as well as at the pre-service education and training level.

Reducing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services: How to Find the Best Fit for Men and Women Farmers

Cristina Manfre, Deborah Rubin, Andrea Allen, Gale Summerfield, Kathleen Colverson, Mercy Akeredolu , 2013

Reducing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services: How to Find the Best Fit for Men and Women Farmers, Cristina Manfre, Deborah Rubin, Andrea Allen, Gale Summerfield, Kathleen Colverson, Mercy Akeredolu, 2013

Agriculture is a fundamental driver of economic growth and poverty reduction for many developing countries. Past efforts at revitalizing the agriculture sector have failed in part because they overlooked the role of women and the negative effects of gender inequalities on productivity. According to The State of Food and Agriculture (FAO, 2011), “Women comprise, on average, 43% of the agricultural labor force in developing countries, ranging from 20% in Latin America to 50% in Eastern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa”. Reducing gender inequalities in access to productive resources and services could increase yields on women’s farms by 20–30%, which could raise agricultural output in developing countries by 2.5–4% (FAO, 2011).

Mainstreaming Agrobiodiversity in Sustainable Food Systems:

Bioversity International , 2017

In today’s complex and interconnected world, what we eat and how we produce it are inextricably bound together. A focus on increasing food production without due concern for the environment is causing severe land and water degradation. A focus on addressing hunger without a focus on good nutrition is causing an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. A focus on increasing yields in a few staple food crops is contributing to loss of crop diversity. What we need is to be able to produce a wide variety of nutritious foods while having minimal impact on the environment – a sustainable food system. The Sustainable Development Goals, signed by 193 world leaders in 2015, recognize that these challenges are interconnected and multidimensional.

Competency Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services

Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper, Andrea Bohn, Cristina Manfre, Sandra Russo, Deborah Rubin , 2017

Competency Framework for Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services, Robb Davis, Edye Kuyper, Andrea Bohn, Cristina Manfre, Sandra Russo, Deborah Rubin, 2017

The INGENAES capacity development activities are intended to build gender-responsive, nutrition-sensitive skills among organizations providing agricultural extension services (AES). The objectives are to enable these organizations to identify and equip staff with the appropriate skills to deliver services that lead to improved gender- and nutrition-related outcomes; and to establish a set of gender-responsive, nutrition-sensitive AES practices that substantially and effectively strengthen gender equity and improve nutrition outcomes. 

What types of skills, attitudes, and behaviors (SAB)1 are necessary to enable institutions to deliver gender- and nutrition-informed services? 

The SABs needed at the individual level require a supportive environment that enables individual extension workers to employ the SABs. Such a supportive environment consists of technically correct training, supportive supervision, and appropriate incentives to encourage SAB deployment by staff. 

Food-based Dietary Guidelines: An Overview

Jeanette Andrade, Juan Andrade , 2016

Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: An Overview, Jeanette Andrade, Juan Andrade,, 2016

Men and women of all ages need to consume a variety of foods to support growth, provide strength, improve cognitive function, and reduce susceptibility to chronic diseases, illnesses, and infection (Smolin & Grosvenor, 2016; WHO, 2014). In an effort to help address the nutrition concerns of populations, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) have been established in several countries around the world (FAO, 2016). These FBDG are created to inform the public about consuming more nutritious foods and living a healthier life (FAO, 2016). Additionally, countries use FBDGs not only to guide nutrition education programs but also to guide policies and programs in various sectors like agriculture, education and social protection. The purpose of this technical note is to help health professionals and non-health professionals understand basic facts about the FBDG such as origins, purpose, characteristics, and potential challenges when developing and implementing these FBDG with target communities.

Methods for Teaching and Evaluating Food-Based Dietary Guidelines

Jeanette Andrade, Juan Andrade , 2016

Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) are established in several countries around the world to address the nutrition concerns of populations (FAO, 2016). FBDGs inform the public about consuming nutritious foods and living a healthy life (FAO, 2016). However, the methods and strategies to educate the public, especially those living in rural communities, and their evaluation are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this technical note is to two-fold: 1) to assist health professionals and non-health professionals educate the public about understanding and using FBDGs, and 2) to provide organizations an overview of methods to evaluate these teaching strategies for their effectiveness in changing community members’ dietary behaviors.

Analysis of Indicators and Measurement Tools Used in Zambia to Assess Impact of Agricultural Extension Programs on Gender Equity and Nutrition Outcomes

Rhoda Mofya-Mukuka, Mulako Kabisa , 2016

In Zambia, investment in agricultural extension with a focus on gender equity and nutrition outcomes has been increasing, and in the last decade, several organizations have replicated projects in different geographical areas. However, with persistent high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies still being recorded especially among children below the age of five, it is either these initiatives have little impact on reducing malnutrition, they are not sufficient, the correct programs are not being implemented, and/or the methods used to measure the impact may be inappropriate.

Conceptualizing the Contribution of Agricultural Extension Services to Nutrition

Edye Kuyper, Laina Schneider , 2016

There is growing global interest in better leveraging Agricultural Extension Services (AES) as a foundation for food and nutrition security. Pluralistic AES (defined in Box 1) consist of rural, agriculturally focused extension and advisory services implemented by public, NGO, and private-sector entities. They reach millions of farmers and represent largely untapped potential for influencing production and consumption decisions which could, in turn, affect the health and nutrition status of populations, particularly in rural areas. Their specific contributions, however, are only beginning to be articulated and evaluated.

This discussion paper addresses the specific contribution that AES can make to food and nutrition security in a way that is consistent with AES’s primary functions. It is particularly focused on the scope of the INGENAES project and the context of the Feed the Future countries within which the project operates.

Integrated Homestead Food Production

IFAD , 2015

This note presents lessons learned on integrated homestead food production (IHFP) emerging from projects and programmes implemented by IFAD and other development actors around the world. It aims to complement the How To Do Note (HTDN) on the same subject by illustrating success stories and good practices through case studies. The emerging lessons are distilled and synthesized in order to provide concrete models that could inform and ideally be scaled up in the design and implementation of future IFAD-funded interventions.

Synthesis of Guiding Principles on Agriculture Programming for Nutrition

FAOVersion , 2013

Since the food crisis in 2008, the L’Aquila commitments to agriculture - as well as increased investments in agriculture from multilateral development institutions and foundations - have led to increased funding and human resources for agricultural development, and in particular that focused on smallholder and women farmers. At the same time, the Scaling Up Nutrition Framework for Action (2010) and Road Map (2011) have also placed an emphasis on the need for urgent investment to reduce malnutrition, and the United Nations Committee on World Food Security (CFS) is developing a Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition (2012). National governments and operational staff have also increased their requests for assistance and guidance from the international development partners on what to do to improve nutrition impact from agriculture. For example, since the inclusion of nutrition as Pillar 3 in the CAADP, African nations are seeking improved knowledge and capacity in this area.

Improving Dietary Diversity to Enhance Women’s and Children’s Nutritional Status in Guatemala’s Western Highlands

FANTA , 2016

Nearly one out of every two children under 5 years of age in Guatemala is stunted. In the Western Highlands, the situation is far worse, with 7 out of every 10 children stunted. Stunting causes children to be shorter than healthy children of the same age. Stunting is a result of chronic malnutrition caused by inadequate quantity and variety of nutrient-rich foods and/or by repeated illnesses, and can lead to adverse health and physical and cognitive development. Stunting in young children increases the risk of: mortality from infections, impaired cognitive ability, late school enrollment, poor school performance, dropping out of school, lower future adult labor productivity, and chronic diseases in adulthood. Preventing stunting through key interventions during the critical 1,000 days from pregnancy through the first 2 years of life is important because it can become increasingly difficult to reverse stunting’s negative consequences after this period.

USAID/ENGINE’s Dietary Diversity and “Farm Wash” SBCC Kit for Agriculture Extension Workers

Lydia Clemmons , 2016

DURATION: 5 year integrated nutrition Feed the Future program, funded by USAID (2011-2016), working through multi-sector interventions 

Agriculture and livelihoods, nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive programming, policy, training for frontliners, and advanced degree programs 

PARTNERS: 

  • Led by Save The Children 
  • Partners include Land o’Lakes, Tufts University, JHPIEGO, The Manoff Group, Valid International, and local NGOs through sub-grants 

 LOCATION: 116 woredas (zones) in the Amhara, Oromia, SNNP, Tigray, amd Somali regions of Ethiopia 

TARGETED BENEFICARIES: 

  • 3.1 million under five children 
  • half a million pregnant and lactating women 
  • 3.2 million women of reproductive age 

Incorporating Nutrition in Farmer Field Schools

Karel Callens, Kevin D. Gallagher , 2003

Incorporating nutrition in farmer field schools, Karel Callens, Kevin D. Gallagher, , 2003

In many developing countries, food insecurity combined with a high incidence of infections continues to affect detrimentally the nutrition and health status of poor households. Wasting and stunting are important indicators of undernutrition. Wasting reflects acute food shortages and health problems, and stunting reveals the longer-term presence of nutrition problems. The signs and symptoms of specific micronutrient deficiencies are much less commonly known or recognized by local people and therefore not acted upon as frequently. However, specific micronutrient deficiencies frequently go hand-in-hand with general undernutrition.

Best Practice Tips on Measurement Tools for Gender Equity and Nutrition Impact

Rhoda Mofya-Mukuka, Mulako Kabisa , 2017

An important first step in strengthening gender equity and nutrition outcomes involves having reliable methods of measurement of current conditions (Ballard et al. 2011). Measurement tools and indicators have been developed and validated for measuring nutrition outcomes (FANTA 2008; FAO and FHI 360 2016) and gender equity (Malapit et al. 2014; Alkire et al. 2013) at international level. Measurement helps to hold implementers accountable for the actions they take towards improving the status of gender equity and/or nutrition outcomes in their target areas.

Fostering Agriculture - Nutrition Links

Suresh Chandra Babu, Terih Havimo, Eija Pehu , 2015

Fostering Agriculture - Nutrition Links, Suresh Chandra Babu, Terih Havimo, Eija Pehu, 2015

Malnutrition continues to be a major development challenge in the South Asia Region. Given its size, India hosts the majority of the malnourished. Around 300 million people in India do not have access to a food supply that sufficiently meets their basic energy needs (World Bank 2012. Nutrition at A Glance: India. Washington, DC: World Bank Group). Despite recent economic growth, poverty remains high, and malnutrition is now manifest in all its forms with overweight and obesity increasing alongside persistent undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. The progress made between 1970 and 2010 in reducing malnutrition was largely due to improving access to safe water, female education, and female empowerment, the latter 2 especially key in South Asia. The factor that made the least progress between 1995 and 2010 is increasing quantity and quality of food, clearly a responsibility of agriculture (L. Smith and L. Haddad 2014, “Reducing Child Undernutrition: Past Drivers and Priorities for the Post-MDG Era.” IDS Working Paper 441).

Linking Agricultural Extension, ICT and Youth Engagement to Promote Family Nutrition in Nepal

Nancy Erbstein , 2017

From March 20-22, 2017, a group of fifteen Nepali innovators that together reach millions of nutrition-sensitive agriculture stakeholders gathered to explore how they could collaborate to promote family nutrition (see Appendix 1 for participant list). Together individuals brought expertise in agricultural extension, nutrition extension, ICT development and youth civic engagement, and represented government, private and civil society sectors. 

This effort reflected exploratory research findings that identified the potential of linking these arenas to take on the cultural, social and informational barriers to nutrition-sensitive agriculture, with a particular emphasis on potential/returning migrant workers and their families (INGENAES publication by Pokharel, Erbstein and Budhathoki, forthcoming 2017). The workshop was designed to build relationships and share knowledge across these typically disconnected sectors in order to generate ideas, practices and action at their intersections. A highly participatory process involving all as presenters and members of work groups produced rich information about enhancing family nutrition via agricultural extension, ICT and youth engagement in Nepal. 

Women’s Empowerment and Child Nutrition: Reducing the Gap with Dairy Cow Rearing

Islam, Mainul et al. , 2017

In Bangladesh, rural households rear cattle as a component of mixed farming rather than on a truly commercial basis. Like most Asian countries, rural Bangladeshi women extensively participate in livestock management, especially in rearing dairy cows (FAO, 2003; Anderson and Eswaran, 2007; Hashemi et al., 1996; Kabeer 1998) yet society rarely recognizes them as farmers. Consequently, women still receive limited extension services or other support and therefore their contributions to dairy value chains are less than they could be.

Stories From the Field: Improving Nutrition and Livelihoods Through Farmer Field and Life Schools

FAO REOA , 2014

Malnutrition is a threat to the wellbeing of vulnerable populations in Eastern Africa. Poor rural households often do not have access to high quality and nutritious foods or they lack a good understanding of improved nutrition habits. Through the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), women and men in the region are now being trained on the nutritious value of locally available foods through the Farmer Field and Life Schools (FFLS).

Stories From the Field: Food and Nutrition Challenges in North-western Kenya

FAO REOA , 2013

Securing food supplies is a struggle some pastoral communities in the Horn of Africa face every day. In the semi-arid north-western region of Kenya, members of the Pokot and Turkana tribes live on two meals per day. FAO REOA and its partners have rolled out the Pastoralist Field Schools (PFS) programme to help improve the food and nutrition security situation, but the local communities are still vulnerable. Cheppurai Lolli and Elizabeth Imuran, both PFS members, share their experiences.

Country Level Programming in Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture

UNSCN, Janice Meerman , 2014

This report presents the findings from the UNSCN’s review on Country Level Programming for Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture, and summarizes the current concept of and evidence base for nutrition sensitive agriculture, as well as provides an overview of cross-cutting gender considerations in programming, namely in regards to how nutrition-sensitive programming can contribute to improved gender equality. Resilience building and nutrition education are also discussed as cross-cutting themes. This work has been made possible through the sponsorship by the Government of CANADA.

Monitoring & Evaluation, Rumonge, Burundi

OPE Rububu , 2009

The FFS group in Rumonge had just started holding regular meeting sessions, facilitated by a female facilitator trained in the Ngozi TOF. Field activities so far had included establishment of a nursery for vegetables (cabbage, tomatoes, eggplant, amaranths, onion etc.). The group has access to two plots, one right on the shore of a river close to the resident area of members, and another plot on the prison owned land close to the lake shore. Tomatoes production was planned to form the groups learning enterprise, and experimental plots were to be established the following week. The group had a formal structure in place with group officials and FFS sub-groups (all with names and slogans). A majority of members were women and considered vulnerable due to poverty or health status. The group meets weekly on Wednesdays for FFS learning sessions.

Singing the Same Song: Nutrition-sensitive Agriculture Messages in Zambia

Bertha Munthali, McDonald Mulongwe, Edye Kuyper, Kristy Cook, Emily Burrows , 2017

Singing the same song: Nutrition-sensitive  agriculture messages in Zambia, Bertha Munthali, McDonald Mulongwe, Edye Kuyper, Kristy Cook, Emily Burrows, 2017

Zambia has experienced more than a decade of robust economic growth and stable maize production, yet food and nutrition security has not improved significantly. Over 40% of children under five are stunted (Central Statistical Office, 2015) and 48% of the population is undernourished (FAO/IFAD/WFP 2015). Growing evidence suggests that this seeming paradox may be associated with an overemphasis on production and consumption of the staple crop, maize: roughly 51% of cultivated land is committed to maize, which constitutes 57% of the national diet.

Feeding the Five Thousand: How Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools are bridging the nutritional gap in Kakuma

FAO REOA , -

“In the last three months, the children have made over ten thousand shillings from the sale of kales, brinjals, spinach, tomatoes, capsicum and carrots to the neighbouring communities. Besides, the school has also been using the same plots to feed the children themselves”, says a proud Ekal Lochi. A teacher at Kalobeyei Boarding Primary School, Mr. Lochi, who is also the JFFLS facilitator at the school, proudly displays the children’s own farm records of the returns of their farming efforts at the school. The profits, he explains, are used for their upkeep in case of sickness and to pay for examinations.

Mainstreaming Nutrition into Agricultural Extension

Manika Saha,Mohammad Abdul Mannan, Lalita Bhattacharjee , 2016

Mainstreaming Nutrition into Agricultural Extension, Manika Saha,Mohammad Abdul Mannan, Lalita Bhattacharjee, 2016

Lessons Learned from Two Projects that Integrated Agricultural Interventions and Nutrition in Bangladesh 

Food and nutrition security exists when all people are able to consume food in both sufficient quantity and quality to meet their dietary needs and food preferences, and they are supported by an environment with adequate sanitation, health services and care, allowing for a healthy and active life (FAO, 1996). Agriculture1 is fundamental to this widely held definition of food and nutrition security. Approximately half of the people of Bangladesh depend on agriculture for their livelihoods as a source of income. Two-thirds of them are women farmers. Most agricultural producers also purchase foods to supplement their home production (GoB, 2011). Despite high level of economic growth in recent years, malnutrition persists in many countries of the South Asian Region. Bangladesh has achieved significant economic growth and poverty reduction, yet continues to battle some of the highest rates of malnutrition in the world (World Bank, 2011). To improve the nutritional status of affected persons in Bangladesh, nutrition specific interventions such as Vitamin A supplementation, food supplementation, and immunization programmes have been in place for many years. Unfortunately, little focus has been placed on the broader resolutions of nutrition through agriculture (including horticulture, fisheries and animal husbandry) that play an important role in reducing undernutrition through food-based approaches as nutrition-sensitive interventions. 

Women in Post-harvest Activities: Understanding their Health and Nutrition Behaviour

Gulay Jannat, Sanzida Akhter , 2017

Bangladesh is a country with mainly paddy-based agriculture, which has managed to triple its rice production since independence in 1971, from 10 million metric tons to over 33.83 million metric tons (Krishi Dairy in Khatun, 2015). 76% of the country’s people live in the rural areas and 90% of them have livelihoods directly related to agriculture (Dev et al., 2014). From this perspective, rural women’s participation in post-harvest activities are one of the most important contributions in agricultural production in Bangladesh. However, in traditional Bangladeshi context, post-harvest work is simply seen as part of women’s household responsibilities; in other words, this work has little monetary value or social recognition. Though this scenario has been changing due to the new technological intervention and frequent market affiliation with rice production and processing, nowadays many women are working in mills (usually called rice mills) as cheap and conventional labour for their livelihood. In this aspect, the aim of this study is to explore the health and nutritional behaviour of rice mill women workers in Narina Union of Shahjadpur.

Engendering Agricultural Extension Services and Agricultural Marketing:

Sabiha Yeasmin Rosy, Tania Haque , 2017

Promoting Female Headed Households Farmers’ Economic Empowerment for Securing Nutrition 

The objective of this research is to incorporate women in extension services to enhance their economic empowerment to secure nutrition in their households. This study was carried out in Manikganj district with the help of Karmojibi Nari. The information was collected from women farmers of FHH, Government extension service officer, Building Resources Across Communities (BRAC) and Karmojibi Nari staff members, the chairman and another member of Manikganj Chamber of Commerce, and a group of community men. We used the in-depth interview method and Focus Group Discussion method as qualitative tools to collect data from the different target groups.

Farm Field Schools (Escuelas de Campo)

Oswaldo Miguel Medina-Ramirez , 2017

Farm Field Schools (Escuelas de Campo), Oswaldo Miguel Medina-Ramirez, 2017

The purpose of this activity was to analyze the ability of Farmer Field Schools (Escuelas de Campo) to integrate gender and nutrition into agricultural extension programs and assess the current status of the Agricultural Extension System (AES) in Honduras. This research directly contributes to the vision of the Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Extension Services (INGENAES) initiative by informing project partners and local stakeholders on the potential of Escuelas de Campo as a platform for introducing gender and nutrition integration into agricultural extension programs.

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Surrounding Nutrition among Extension Institutions and Their Beneficiaries in Honduras

Katie McNamara , 2016

In Honduras, women face high rates of discrimination and lack equal access to resources and services as compared to men. Gender inequality is intimately linked to nutrition, poverty, and agriculture, and all four issues often reinforce one another. For example, greater gaps in gender equality are associated with higher rates of malnutrition. When individuals have poor nutrition, their health and ability to work are affected, leading to lower incomes and reinforcement of poverty. These associations have serious implications on the local and national economy and human rights.

Infusing Agricultural Extension with Nutrition and Gender-sensitive Messages

Lulu Rodriguez, Lea Peck , 2015

A Needs Assessment Report from a Communications Perspective, based on Field Work in Bangladesh 

Dr. Lulu Rodriguez and Lea Peck of the University of Illinois’ Agricultural Communications Program were asked to join an interdisciplinary team of students, faculty members and staff of two other universities that visited Bangladesh on behalf of the Integrating Gender and Nutrition within Agricultural Services (INGENAES) project. 

INGENAES’ mandate is to assist USAID’s Feed the Future missions to strengthen gender and nutrition integration within agricultural extension and advisory services (EAS). Its stated objectives are (1) to build robust nutrition-oriented institutions, projects and programs capable of assessing and responding to the nutrition needs of farmers and farm families; (2) identify, test the efficacy, and strengthen proven mechanisms for delivering improved EAS to women farmers; (3) disseminate gender-appropriate and nutrition-enhancing technologies and access to inputs to improve women’s agricultural productivity and enhance household nutrition; and (4) apply effective extension approaches and tools to enhance the nutritional status especially of those who reside in rural areas. 

Men’s Perceptions of Their Roles and Involvement in Household Decisions around Food in Rural Bangladesh

Suzanna Smith, Kamal Bhattacharyya , 2016

INGENAES Case Study

Households include a number of decision-makers who hold varying beliefs about how family members should be involved with food—its purchase, preparation, distribution, consump-tion, and marketing. Households are complex and dynamic systems, involving gender and generational roles influenced by tradition, culture, circumstances, and historical changes. Taking on a household lens is compatible with a systems’ perspective on agricultural develop-ment, such as an agricultural innovation systems framework that incorporates “all the actors in the system and their interactions”, as well as institutions and policies that impact the system and its innovations. 

The Farmer Field School Approach – History, Global Assessment and Success Stories

Arnoud Braun, Deborah Duveskog , 2009

This section discusses the history of the farmer field school approach, including origin and emergence, characteristics and evolution of the approach, and the current global status.

Improved Nutrition Through Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services

Suresh Chandra Babu, Meera Singh, T. V. Hymavathi, K. Uma Rani, G. G. Kavitha, and Shree Karthik , 2016

Improved Nutrition Through Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services, Suresh Chandra Babu, Meera Singh, T. V. Hymavathi, K. Uma Rani, G. G. Kavitha, and Shree Karthik, 2016

Case Studies of Curriculum Review and Operational Lessons From India 

Even after several decades of green revolution, malnutrition continues to be a major development challenge in much of South Asia, and India has a major share of the malnourished people in the region. The nutritional issues in India are complex and therefore require a multifaceted, multidisciplinary solution. One facet of the solution is increasing knowledge about the causes of and solutions to malnutrition at the farm household level through agricultural extension. Disseminating nutrition-sensitive agricultural knowledge is not currently an activity of agricultural extension in India, but there is great potential for integrating it through the well-established network of extension offi cers. For nutrition goals to be integrated into extension, the curricula provided to current and future agricultural extension agents must be revisited. As part of the South Asia Food and Nutrition Security Initiative (SAFANSI), this paper focuses on approaches to incorporating such nutrition content into the agricultural extension curriculum.

Three state agricultural universities in Tamil Nadu, united Andhra Pradesh, and Bihar were used as case studies for the curriculum review. Through these case studies, face-to-face consultations at the national level down to program implementation at the village level have been developed. These include consultative workshops, and a conceptual framework and strategy for incorporating nutrition into extension curriculum development to improve nutrition outcomes. This strategy, detailed in this report, includes opportunities for collaboration from the national level to the community level. Specifi c lessons and follow-up actions are outlined that may be useful for other South Asian countries.

The Coffee Agricultural Value Chain

Kathleen Colverso , 2017

INGENAES Tip Sheet

In many Latin American countries, coffee is considered one of the top export crops. Many rural families use coffee sales as a significant source of income, and in Honduras coffee production is around 26 percent of the 60 percent of total agricultural production (FAO, 2015). Coffee is an ideal crop for Honduras as there is limited arable land that is suitable for other types of agriculture, and it can be grown in the mountains. However, one of the challenges associated with coffee production is how the income that is generated from the sales is used to benefit the household. This activity sheet explores how income from coffee sales might be used to improve overall family nutrition.

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The Coffee Agricultural Value Chain, Kathleen Colverson, 2017

La Cadena de Valor del Café

Kathleen Colverson , 2017

INGENAES Material Informativo

En muchos países latinoamericanos, el café es considerado uno de los principales cultivos de exportación. Muchas familias rurales utilizan las ganancias obtenidas de la venta de café como una fuente importante de ingresos. En Honduras la producción de café se calcula que es el 26% del 60% de la producción agrícola total (FAO, 2015). El café es un cultivo ideal para Honduras, ya que existen pocas tierras arables adecuadas para otros tipos de agricultura y además, se puede cultivar en las montañas. Sin embargo, uno de los retos asociados con la producción de café es la distribución del ingreso generado por la venta del café y como este, se utiliza para beneficio del hogar. 

Esta hoja de actividades explora cómo los ingresos de la venta de café pueden ser utilizados para mejorar la nutrición de la familia. 

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La Cadena de Valor del Café, Kathleen Colverson, 2017

Integrating Gender and Nutrition into the Granos Básicos (Basic Grains) Value Chains

Kathleen Colverson , 2017

INGENAES Info Sheet

In many Latin American countries, diets are based around “basic grains” – corn and beans. Many rural poor families depend on basic grains for their survival, and they are considered the most important crops to the social and economic life of Hondurans. Corn and beans represent twelve percent of the agricultural GDP and generate about 300,000 permanent jobs in Honduras (www.hondurasnews.com/basic-grains-crops-good). However, with climate change and poor farming practices, many families do not grow enough of these crops for their household needs and other nutritional needs are not met due to an overemphasis on these two food sources.

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Integración del Género y la Nutrición en las Cadenas de Valor (Granos Básicos)

Kathleen Colverson , 2017

INGENAES Material Informativo

En muchos países de América Latina, las dietas se basan en "granos básicos" - maíz y frijoles. Muchas familias de los sectores rurales dependen de los granos básicos para solventar sus necesidades alimentarias. En Honduras los granos básicos desempeñan un importante rol en el aspecto social y económico. El maíz y los frijoles representan el 12% del PIB agrícola y generan cerca de 300.000 empleos permanentes en Honduras. Sin embargo, debido a factores como el cambio climático y en algunos casos inadecuadas prácticas agrícolas, la productividad de estos cultivos es baja y no suple las necesidades alimentarias y nutricionales del hogar.

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Assessing Food Patterns and Gender Roles

Dena Bunnel , 2016

INGENAES Tip Sheet

Nutrition is important in everyone’s lives, but what good nutrition specifically means may mean different things to different members of a community or family. Women may be the ones who prepare food, but they often have less influence on household decisions including what foods they prepare. It is important to include men in discussions as they may be making production, marketing or purchasing decisions. When men understand the contribution they can make, they can take action to improve family nutrition.

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Infant Feeding and Exposure to Aflatoxins

Alyson Young , 2016

INGENAES Technical Note

Aflatoxins play an important role in household health and nutrition. 

Aflatoxins are fungal toxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aspergillus is a common form of mold that can colonize and contaminate food before harvest or during storage, especially following a drought or prolonged exposure to a high-humidity environment. 

Aflatoxin exposure in children can lead to stunted growth, developmental delays, and issues with immune suppression and increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Longer-term exposure to aflatoxins increases the risk for liver and gallbladder cancer. Factors that increase the risk of aflatoxicosis include limited amounts of food, environmental conditions that favor mold growth on food, and limited regulation and oversight for aflatoxin monitoring and control. 

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How Different Foods Help

Edye Kuyper, Mark Bell, Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Info Sheet

A variety of foods from the different food groups need to be consumed on a daily basis to provide the body with energy, protect the body, and to help build the body. The purpose of the “How Different Foods Help” tip sheet is to encourage you to promote eating different foods, also called balanced meals or dietary diversity, on a daily basis to the people you meet and work with.

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How Different Foods Help, Edye Kuyper, Mark Bell, Jeanette Andrade, 2016

Eating Well – Staying Well

Edye Kuyper, Mark Bell, and Sonja Hess , 2016

INGENAES Info Sheet

Even though many smallholder farmers around the world have been able to increase production and earn higher incomes from farming, what families eat and their nutritional status has not necessarily improved. People may not realize it, but some may suffer as a result of poor nutrition.

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Eating Well – Staying Well, Edye Kuyper, Mark Bell, and Sonja Hess, 2016

Basics of Nutrition

Edye Kuyper, Mark Bell, Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Info Sheet

Food provides essential nutrients to help one perform daily activities, to support growth, to maintain energy, and to keep one healthy. The purpose of the “Basics of Nutrition” fact sheet is to provide an overview of the nutrients that people need to consume on a daily basis.

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Basics of Nutrition, Edye Kuyper, Mark Bell, Jeanette Andrade, 2016

Recognizing Vitamin A Deficiency in Children

Liberty Galvin , 2016

INGENAES Info Sheet

Families need to eat certain foods to help them stay strong, healthy, productive and smart. One important nutrient that some foods provide is vitamin A. When you don’t get enough vitamin A from the foods you eat, you have trouble seeing at night and other vision problems, and you may become more vulnerable to other illnesses, such as diarrhea and measles. Children and pregnant women especially need vitamin A, and if they don’t get it their health can be negatively affected forever, leaving them vulnerable to blindness and other life threatening diseases.

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Integrating Gender and Nutrition into Agricultural Value Chains

INGENAES , 2016

INGENAES Activity Sheet

Women and men are likely to have different objectives for participating in agricultural value chains, and different abilities to access and use new technologies and information. Understanding these differences in terms of gender-based opportunities and constraints around decision-making, access and control of resources, and women's ability to engage in horizontal (e.g. producer groups) and vertical (e.g. with input suppliers and buyers) relationships along value chains is critical to developing effective agricultural value chains. By understanding the gender and nutrition dimensions along the value chain, and increasing women’s control of income generated from agricultural production, food security and family nutrition have been shown to increase.

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What Should Go on the Plate?

INGENAES , 2016

INGENAES Activity Sheet

Girls and women often have unequal status in a household which can have negative long-term outcomes. The effects of inequalities in terms of individual health and well-being are well documented. The consequences of poor nutrition include low birth weights, child and maternal mortality, disease, decreased work production, and poor classroom performance. Increasing nutritional awareness when planning, facilitating, and evaluating extension programs is essential for the long-term health benefits not only for women and girls, but also for all family members.

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Who Eats What?

INGENAES , 2016

NGENAES Activity Sheet

Child and maternal malnutrition – in particular child underweight, child micronutrient deficiencies, poor breastfeeding practices, and anemia – are by far the largest nutrition-related health burdens at the global level. “Cultural norms” are sometimes responsible for contributing to these issues and can be analyzed if the intra-household consumption patterns are “unpacked” with the community. If these cultural norms are better understood, opportunities for changing long-standing gendered behaviors related to food security and malnutrition can be improved.

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Who Eats What?, INGENAES, 2016

Nutrition for Toddlers

Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Activity Sheet

Providing toddlers (ages 9 -24 months) proper nutrition is an important part of their growth and development. The purpose of the “Nutrition for Toddlers” Activity Sheet is to encourage parents to feed their toddlers nutritious foods on a daily basis.

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Nutrition for Toddlers, Jeanette Andrade, 2016

Nutrition for the Elderly

Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Activity Sheet

Proper nutrition during our “golden years” is necessary to maintain bone and joint strength, brain health, and reduce illness. The purpose of the “Nutrition for the Elderly” Activity Sheet is to encourage elders to eat nutritious foods on a daily basis.

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Nutrition for the Elderly, Jeanette Andrade, 2016

Nutrition for Pregnant Females

Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Activity Sheet

Proper nutrition is critical for pregnant women, especially for them to feel well and active, for the growth and health of the baby, to facilitate the delivery, and to support breastfeeding. The purpose of the “Nutrition for Pregnant Women” Activity Sheet is to encourage women to eat nutritious foods on a daily basis during pregnancy.

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Nutrition for Pregnant Females, Jeanette Andrade, 2016

Nutrition for Active Adults

Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Fact Sheet

Proper nutrition for active adults is necessary to maintain strength, energy, and to reduce injuries and illness. The purpose of the “Nutrition for those who are Active” activity sheet is to encourage active adults to eat nutritious foods on a daily basis.

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Nutrition for Active Adults, Jeanette Andrade, 2016

Nutrition for 6-9 Month Old Infants

Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Fact Sheet

ntroducing solid foods, also known as complementary feeding, to infants is an important part of their growth and development. The purpose of the “Nutrition for 6-9 month old Infants” Activity Sheet is to explain how to properly introduce solid foods to children.

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Nutrition for 6-9 Month Old Infants, Jeanette Andrade, 2016

Nutrition During Illness

Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Activity Sheet

Proper nutrition is needed to prevent illness, to re-stablish the balance and to reduce further issues with the condition. The purpose of the “Nutrition during Illness” Activity Sheet is to encourage those who are ill to eat nutritious foods on a daily basis.

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Nutrition During Illness, Jeanette Andrade, 2016

Iron Needs for Female Adolescents

Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Activity Sheed

Iron is critical for adolescent (ages 12-19 years) females for their red blood cells and to reduce illness. The purpose of the “Iron Needs for Female Adolescents” activity sheet is to encourage participants to consume iron on a daily basis.

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Iron Needs for Female Adolescents, Jeanette Andrade, 2016

 

Eating a Variety of Foods

Edye Kuyper, Mark Bell; Jeanette Andrade , 2016

INGENAES Activity Sheet July 2016

A variety of foods from the different food groups need to be consumed on a daily basis to provide the body with energy, protect the body, and to help build the body. The purpose of the “How Different Foods Help” activity sheet is to help families plan to consume a variety of foods on a daily basis.

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Eating a Variety of Foods, Edye Kuyper, Mark Bell; Jeanette Andrade, 2016

Integrating Nutrition Into the Curricula of Agriculture Education Institutions: Strengthening Human Capacity to Promote Nutrition-sensitive Agriculture

Global Forum for Food Security and Nutrition FSN , 2015

This document summarizes the online discussion. Integrating nutrition into the curricula of agriculture education institutions: Strengthening human capacity to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture held on FAO’s Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum) from 10 to 27 November 2015. 

Over the three weeks of discussion, 36 contributions were shared by participants from 18 countries. The topic introduction and questions proposed as well as all contributions received are available on the discussion page: 

www.fao.org/fsnforum/forum/discussions/integrating_nutrition 

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What Role Can Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services Play in Realizing Gender Equality and Improved Nutrition?

Global Forum for Food Security and Nutrition FSN , 2017

FSN Forum summary AEAS nutrition gender Page 01This document summarizes the online discussion What role can Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services play in realizing gender equality and improved nutrition? which was held on the FAO Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum) from 19 June to 9 July 2017. The discussion was facilitated by Hajnalka Petrics, Soniia David and Fatima Hachem from FAO, and Edye Kuyper from INGENAES.

In this discussion, participants shared ideas on the role Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services (AEAS) should have with regard to broader development. Participants were, in particular, invited to submit examples of AEAS successfully addressing gender inequalities and improved nutrition, but also to discuss the challenges that have impeded them to do so. Furthermore, participants were asked what the role and main activities of a global forum such as the GFRAS Nutrition Working Group should be in helping AEAS to become more gender-sensitive and able to contribute to improved nutrition.

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