egyptEgypt public agricultural extension system that began as a government service in 1953 is a ministry-based system that functions at two levels: the ministry or national level and the implementation level in governorates-districts-villages. At the ministry level, the Central Administration for Agricultural Extension Services (CAAES), one of the seven sectors of the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR) is the key national level extension organization. It is comprised of five functioning department that provide technical supervision to extension staff. At the implementation level, extension is organized with administrative and technical staff at the governorates, districts, and villages. In theory, public sector extension in many countries including Egypt tend to serve the vast majority of small farmers while the private sector, suppliers of inputs and other services, and consultant work with large estates and corporate farmers.