syriaSyria is an Arabic-speaking country located in Western Asia, with a population of about 22 million. The capital of Syria is Damascus. On the western side of the country is the Mediterranean Sea coast. Syria, which has been classified by the World Bank as a lower middle income country, mainly depends on its oil and agriculture sectors for economy. The country is administratively divided into 14 governorates (provinces), which are divided into 61 districts. Each district is further sub-divided into sub-districts.

Syria’s topography comprises fertile plains, coastal mountains, plateaus and vast desert. The Euphrates is the most important river in the country. The climate of Syria is Mediterranean-- hot and dry with mild winters, albeit with some snowfall, and adequate rainfall.

Context

Context

Syria has both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In 2003, the agricultural sector constituted about 23 percent of the national GDP and employed about 30 percent of the country’s labor force. The primary agricultural products are wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets, beef, mutton, eggs, poultry and milk. Cotton, which is cultivated on irrigated land, is the main commercial crop. The country has, over the years, gone through a series of land reforms. Most farmers have small holdings, but the private sector has also been involved in commercial farming on a limited number of large farms in certain areas. Organic farming is a recent phenomenon in Syria.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator Value Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

138,640

75.49

4,611,000

25.11

0.20

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land) 65.42 2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

22.93

103.95

21.01

21.03

2009

2011

2010

2010

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) 2,610 2010

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

83.44

93.64

96.13

97.40

99.84

2010

2010

2010

2010

2011

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

63.16

22.5

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

22,399,254

119.59

9,751,694

43.53

18.21

6,021,273

1,337,000

22.20

60.65

2012

2011

2012

2012

2010

2011

2010

2011

2010

Sources: The World Bank, *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

Next

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (July 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

Add comment


Security code
Refresh