Institutional good governance and accountability have proven to be required for success. This means that institutions should ensure farmers and their FOs participate in decision-making regarding resource mobilisation, financing mechanisms, and contract allocation as well as planning, implementation, and evaluation of advisory services. This includes their full and practical representation in policy processes and decision- making bodies, procedures to evaluate services by farmers (e.g. through SMS), systemic mechanisms to develop demand and to link demand with qualified service providers, and contracting of AAS.
Evidence of impacts, sustainability, and scalability
The framework in Figure 2 shows the expected results of demand-side financing combined with demand-driven delivery systems.
Empowerment of smallholder farmers: Improved knowledge regarding available services and financing mechanisms enhances users’ capacity to access the services they need. Service providers are thus accountable to users. Increased relevance of services: When farmers are engaged in financing, planning, and governing AAS, they become empowered to demand services that respond to their needs in terms of both content and quality.
Increased relevance of services: When farmers are engaged in financing, planning, and governing AAS, they become empowered to demand services that respond to their needs in terms of both content and quality.
Increased effectiveness and efficiency in quality and results: Experiences of effectiveness7 and efficiency are mixed in the different models. Where implementation has been successful, the services have been effective in increasing productivity, product quality, and access to markets.
There is a strong relationship between commercial market integration of farmers and sustainability of systems. This includes the ability and willingness of farmers to contribute financially from their own funds. For small-scale farmers with a weak connection to markets, public subsidies are required to increase their purchasing power (e.g. through demand-side financing) as well as securing their interest in the services.