philippinesThe Philippines is an archipelago Southeast Asian country comprising 7,107 islands located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country is prone to frequent earthquakes and typhoons due to its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. Its islands enjoy vast natural resources and very high levels of biodiversity. The population of the Philippines is 94,852,030 (2011), growing at a rate of 1.8 percent per year. Philippines’ capital is Manila.

Context

Context

The country is divided into three island groups namely Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The island groups are divided into 16 regions, which are sub-divided into 79 provinces. Within all the provinces are 114 cities, 1,496 municipalities, and 41,939 barangays (smallest administrative divisions). Most of the mountainous islands are covered by tropical rainforest. The climate is tropical, warm and humid with distinct dry season (November to May) and wet season (June to October). Mismanagement, environmental pollution and high population are the cause of widespread poverty. The Asian financial crisis of 1997alsoaffected the Philippines economy.

Although the Philippines is gradually transforming  into an industrialized nation yet, basically, it is still an agricultural country, with about one third of its population living in rural areas. The agriculture sector comprises farming, fisheries, forestry and livestock. It employs close to 39.8 percent of the country’s work force, and its contribution to the GDP is about 20 percent. The sector has suffered from low public investment, especially in the area of irrigation systems, sustained low productivity levels, costly farm inputs, and lately increased frequency of typhoons and flooding. Such problems and lucrative prices being offered by real estate developers has tempted a large number of poor farmers into selling their cultivable lands, which have been converted into golf courses, resorts and building complexes. Deforestation and excessive application of chemical farm inputs have caused environment problems. The government has tried to modernize the agriculture sector through the Agricultural Fisheries Modernization Act (1997) and the Medium Term Agricultural Development Plan (2001-2004).

The usual size of landholding is about 2.16 hectares, which has been declining in recent years. Crops, fruits, vegetables, poultry and swine are common features of farms. Main crops are rice, corn, coconut, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple, coffee, mangoes, tobacco, and abaca, and the secondary crops include peanut, cassava, camote, garlic, onion, cabbage, eggplant, calamansi, rubber, and cotton. Commercial agriculture operated by large plantations covers coconuts, copra, sugarcane, tobacco, bananas and pineapples. Major agricultural and fishery exports comprise coconut oil, bananas, pineapple, tuna, seaweed and prawns.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

119,500

40.07

5,400,000

18.11

0.05

2009

2009

2009

2009

2009

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

140.47

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

13.03

111.71

7.35

11.09

2011

2010

2010

2010

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

2210

2011

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

95.42

98.49

97.01

101.51

108.29

2008

2008

2008

2008

2009

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

85.66

25

2010

2010

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population**

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

94,852,030

312.77

31,335,628

33.03

32.95

38,893,000

13,404,000

34.46

24.17

2011

2011

2010

2011

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Sources:The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO,  ; National Statistics Office, Labor Force Survey, Public Files 

History

History of Extension and the Enabling / Disabling Environment for Extension in the Philippines 

Sometime during the 333-year colonization of the Philippines by Spain from 1521 to 1854, the Spanish missionaries established “model farms” (Granjas Modelos), which were later turned into “settlement farm schools”. In 1902, the United States established the Bureau of Agriculture, within which the Division of Demonstration and Extension Service was created in 1910. The Division was later expanded to cover farmers’ cooperatives, rural credit and animal insurance. Although Bureau of Plant Industry and Bureau of Anima Industry were created in 1929 yet the Division of Demonstration and Extension Service stayed within the former bureau. In 1936, under the Commonwealth Act No. 85, the government established the provincial extension service along with the staff comprising provincial agricultural extension supervisors and municipal agricultural inspectors.

The government created the Bureau of Agricultural Extension (BAEx) in 1952 under the Republic Act No. 680, which integrated agricultural extension services of the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. The very next year, BAEx was given a mandate, upon recommendation of the Bell Commission, to implement an agricultural extension program covering farm management, home management and rural youth development. In 1963, under the Republic Act No. 3844 (known as the Land Reform Code), the BAEx was turned into the Commission on Agricultural Productivity, which functioned under the Office of the President. The Commission promoted both agricultural cooperatives and the land reform program. In 1967, under the Republic Act No. 5185 (known as the Decentralization Act), followed by the Executive Order No. 128 the next year, the responsibility for delivering agricultural extension services was handed over to the local government at a time when as many as 16 various government agencies were involved in extension activities.

During early 1970s, the Ministry of Agriculture appointed Regional Directors of Agriculture, delegating them substantial responsibilities. Community-based organizations were strengthened and agricultural extension staff focused on technology transfer for farming systems, institutional development and human resources development. In 1984, under the Executive Order No. 967, the Ministry of Agriculture was re-named as the Ministry of Agriculture and Food (MAF), with the broad mandate of policy formulation for the development of crops, livestock, poultry and fisheries, implementation of projects and programs, and provision of various services including research and extension.

Since early 1990s, when the BAEx was devolved and responsibilities for extension were given to the Local Government Units (LGU), the public extension service has been seriously weakened. Extension constraints include a lack of recognition, absence of proper leadership, disparities in staff salaries due to differing economic status of municipalities, negligible operational funds, a lack of in-service training and career development, frequent political interferences, and absence of program impact assessment, leading to very low morale of the staff, something that most elected politicians find hard to realize. It is no surprise that the reversal of extension devolution is being debated, and one of the arguments is why should the responsibility for extension not be transferred from the LGUs to the provincial governments.

Presently, the Philippines has a pluralistic pattern of extension. The service-providers include central government, local government, academic institutions, NGOs, and private companies.

Donors’ assistance to the Philippines has been declining. In 2004, the official development assistance (ODA) was just € 722 million, with the top sector transport, followed by agriculture (€117.4 million). The European Union was the biggest donor. Other significant donors include Japan, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, AusAid, USAID, Germany, Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands.

In terms of support to extension, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) implemented a two-year project TCP/PHI/0167 around 2002 which focused on strengthening the devolved agricultural extension services. Recent projects financed by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), which primarily aim at reducing rural poverty and involve extension are: Rural Microenterprise Promotion Program (RuMEPP); Second Cordillera Highland Agricultural Resource Management Project (CHARMP) with co-financing by the Asian Development Bank and the OPEC Fund for International Development; and Rapid Food Production Enhancement Program (RaFPEP) co-financed by the European Commission and FAO. The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) has also been assisting the Philippines in developing its agriculture, food and fishery sectors. There were cooperative activities in the area of extension as well.

Extension Providers

Major Institutions Providing Extension/Advisory Services

Public Institutions

Ministry of Agriculture and Food

Department of Agriculture
The Department of Agriculture, headed by the Secretary of Agriculture, is the national level institution responsible for agricultural and fisheries extension. It has several Under-secretaries heading various departments, and one of them is the Under-secretary for Extension and Local Government Units Support & Infrastructure who has, among other offices, the Agricultural Training Institute (ATI) directly under him/her to handle agricultural and fisheries extension.

Agricultural Training Institute (ATI)
The ATI was established in 1987. It started with 10 training centers, but by 1989 it had a total of 41 training centers located in various parts of the country. The centers included seven Farmers’ Training Centers, nine Regional Fishermen’s Training Centers, and the International Training Center on Pig Husbandry. In 1998, the Regional Fishermen’s Training Centers were turned over to the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Also, the Farmers’ Training Centers were renamed as Provincial Training Centers. At present, the ATI has 16 Regional Training Centers at various locations in addition to the International Training Center on Pig Husbandry.

As the extension and training arm of the Department of Agriculture, the ATI performs its mandate as an apex agency for a unified and efficient agriculture and fisheries extension services. The vision of the ATI is leadership excellence in agricultural technology and knowledge management for a more proactive and responsive extension service.

The ATI’s mission is to coordinate diversified agricultural extension delivery systems for the local government sector and other stakeholders to facilitate the flow of information on technology and other services such as fund management, network establishment and systems for standardization and certification of extension providers that can empower the farmers and fisherfolk to become more globally competitive

The goals that guide the ATI in performing its duties are as follows:

  • Improving the quality of knowledge products and services;
  • Enhancing AFE stakeholders’ capabilities;
  • Strengthening partnerships in advancing excellence in extension delivery;
  • Broadening stakeholders’ capacity in climate change adaptation and anticipation;
  • Improving quality of AFE governance

The ATI is headed by a director and assisted by two Deputy Directors. The institution’s technical divisions are Extension Program & Partnerships Division, Extension Innovations & Training Division, and Knowledge Products & Services Division.

The Department of Agriculture has several programs for which ATI coordinates with the concerned implementing department or bureau or agency and relevant LGUs which are responsible for delivering extension services to the farmers. Two examples of such programs are:

  1. The Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (MGA) Rice Program, meaning Golden and Prosperous Rice Harvest Program. This program was restructured in 2008 and focused on FIELDS (i.e. F for fertilizers; I for irrigation; E for extension, farmers’ training and education; L for loans; D for dryers and other post-harvest facilities including infrastructure; and S for seeds).
  2. The Organic Fertilizer Production Project operated by the Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM)

The ATI does not directly deliver extension services to the farmers but assists the LGUs in carrying out this function in line with its goals mentioned above. 

Table 1: Human Resources of Agricultural Training Institute, Philippines as of 2010

Staff Category

Secondary School Diploma

2-3 Yr. Agri. Diploma

B.Sc. Degree

M.Sc. Agri. Degree

Ph.D. Degree

Gender

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

Senior Management Staff

       

30

8

11

16

7

7

Subject-Matter Specialists

       

14

7

26

18

4

3

Field-level Extension Staff

       

32

22

17

23

1

4

Information, Communication & Technology (ICT) Staff

10

 

15

 

13

8

4

3

   

Total Extension Staff: 303

10

 

15

 

89

45

58

60

12

14

According to the Open Academy for Philippine Agriculture (OPAPA), as a result of devolution, as many as 25,000 extension workers were devolved to the Local Government Units throughout the country.

Other bureaus and agencies of the Department of Agriculture

The ATI, which itself is one of the bureaus, collaborates with several bureaus and agencies of the Department of Agriculture that need extension support for their individual programs. Some of these bodies have significant extension mandates. Besides ATI, the names of other bureaus are as follows:

  • Agricultural and Fisheries Product Standards
  • Agricultural Research
  • Agricultural Statistics
  • Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
  • Plant Industries
  • Post-Harvest Research and Extension
  • Soils and Water Management

The ATI also collaborates with several autonomous agencies attached to the Department of Agriculture, which have their own programs and need extension support. The names of those agencies are as follows:

  • Agricultural Credit and Policy Council
  • Cotton Development Administration
  • Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority
  • Fiber Industry Development Authority
  • Livestock Development Council
  • National Dairy Authority
  • National Food Authority
  • National Meat Inspection Authority
  • Philippines Coconut Authority
  • Sugar Regulatory Commission

Local Government Units (LGUs)

Under decentralization in the Philippines, all administrative divisions under the regional level are considered as LUGs, administratively under the Department of the Interior and Local Government . The number of LGUs varies from four to six in each of the 15 regions of the country depending on the size and economic situation of the region. Under the Republic Act 7160 also known as the Local Government Code of the Philippines, the municipal governments have been given powers to provide agricultural and fishery extension services according to the Act’s Section 17.2 which states:  

“Extension and on-site research services and facilities related to agriculture and fishery activities which include dispersal of livestock and poultry, fingerlings, and other seeding materials for aquaculture; palay (rough rice), corn, and vegetable seed farms’ medicinal plant gardens; fruit tree, coconut, and other kinds of seedling nurseries; demonstration farms; quality control of copra and improvement and development of local distribution channels, preferably through cooperatives; inter-barangay irrigation system; water and soil resource utilization and conservation projects; and enforcement of fishery laws in municipal waters including the conservation of mangroves”.

Furthermore, Section 25.b of the Article One states that national agencies and offices with project implementation functions shall coordinate with LGUs concerned in the discharge of these functions. These LGUs are to be involved both in the planning and implementation of national projects.

State Universities and Colleges   

The Philippines has quite a number of well established public academic institutions that offer B.Sc. to Ph.D. degree programs as well as special courses in agricultural disciplines, forestry, animal sciences. Their faculty members are supposedly involved in research, teaching and extension following the pattern of the Land-Grant Colleges in USA. Exact number of purely extension faculty members is not known. Some of these institutions, such as University of Philippines at Los Banos, enjoy international reputation because of their excellent programs. The names, locations and websites of some of the academic institutions with agricultural programs are mentioned below. 

ICT-based extension provision initiatives and facilities

(Presented later, under the section, Info-Mediaries and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Agriculture and Extension)

Non-Public Institutions

Private sector

There are no established private extension services in the Philippines. However, agri-business companies have been undertaking certain types of extension activities purely in the interest of promoting their products (such as farm inputs) and services (such as export and import of agricultural items). Two examples of such private companies are Tagum Agricultural Development Company, Inc. and Victory Global Fullharvest Fertilizer Philippines.

Private universities
There are several private universities in the Philippines that offer programs and courses in agricultural disciplines. Some of them are as follows:

Non-governmental organizations

There are a large number of local NGOs in the Philippines involved in a variety of development activities like rural community development covering agricultural aspects including extension. The Bohol Integrated Development Foundation, Inc. has prepared, in collaboration with the Japan International Cooperation Assistance (JICA), the Directory of Philippine NGOs and Development Organizations which is available at:
www.jica-ngo.ph/resources/JICA%20NGO%20DIRECTORY.pdf .

Examples of a few NGOs with particular relevance for extension are as follows:

  • Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center
  • Negros Island Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development Foundation (NISARD
  • Center for Agriculture and Rural Development, Inc. (CARD
  • Infanta Integrated Community Development Assistance, Inc. (ICDAI)
  • Palawan Center for Appropriate Rural Technology, Inc.
  • Agri-Aqua Development Coalition-Mandanao (AADC)
  • Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP)
  • Japan Agricultural Exchange Council (a Japanese NGO with office in the Philippines)

Farmers-based associations, cooperatives and societies

A large number of farmers-based associations exist in the Philippines which provide a variety of services to their members including input purchase, extension advice, marketing, export, certification etc. A few examples of relevant associations are as follows:

  • Federal Farmers Association of the Philippines
  • The Pilipino Banana Growers and Exporters Association (PBGEA)
  • Farmers’ and Producers’ Business association of the Philippines, Inc. (FAPBAPI)
  • Farmers Association for Rural Upliftment (FARU)
  • Tongonan Farmers Association (TOFA)
  • Davao Hog Farmers Association (DHFA)
  • Misamis Oriental Farmers’ Association (MOFA)
  • Camalandaan Agroforest Farmers Association
  • Organic Producer Trade Association

The Cooperative Development Authority of the Philippines has published a list containing information on various types of cooperatives. The list which shows as many as 21,679 registered cooperatives in the country as of June 30, 2012, may be seen at: www.cda.gov.ph/website/Downloads.cdamasterlist.pdf 

The scope of agricultural cooperatives covers agri-business functions including input supply, production, post-harvest processing, marketing, credit and financing. A few examples of relevant cooperatives are given below.

  • Honey Bee Producers Cooperative
  • Philippines Coconut Farmers Cooperative
  • Aglipay Dairy Producers Cooperative
  • Primera Producers Cooperative
  • 8th Brigade SAWDARA-MNLF Agricultural Producers Cooperative
  • Abalos Estate Agricultural Credit Cooperative
  • Agpangi/Cabungahan Small Farmers Multi-purpose Cooperative
  • Agriculture Farmers Credit Cooperative
  • Alcala Livestock Raisers Multi-purpose Cooperative

List of Extension Providers

icon target The following list shows an excerpt from the GFRAS Directory of Extension Providers for the Philippines. Some of these entries may be specially marked for having more detailed information in the database of the Worldwide Extension Study WWES.

Training

Training Options for Extension Professionals

Pre-service education in agricultural subjects including extension may be obtained at the many universities listed in a previous section. They offer degree-oriented programs and short training courses as well.

In-service training of the extension staff is organized by the national level Agricultural Training Institute (ATI), which has as many as 17 training centers located in various parts of the country. ATIs Extension Innovations and Training Division is responsible for all training activities. Staff training may be arranged at any ATI training center in collaboration with institutions like the University of Philippines Los Banos, or any of the bureaus and agencies of the Department of Agriculture, and sometimes in cooperation with commercial companies and NGOs, depending on the subject of training. If funding is available, the extension staff may be sent overseas for short-term training. The Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center, an NGO in the Philippines, offers several training courses in agriculture.

ICT

Info-mediaries and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Agriculture and Extension

According to the World Bank, in 2010, the number of mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) in the Philippines was 85.66. During the same year, the number of Internet users (per 100 people) in the country was 25. The Republic Act 8435, called the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (1997) mandated the optimal use of ICT in bridging the gap between research, extension, farmers and the marketing. Although the issue of the creation of a separate ICT department or ministry has been dragged on for years and still remains unresolved, the Department of Science and Technology (DOST)  is presently the premiere science and technology body in the country charged with the twin mandate of providing central direction, leadership and coordination of all scientific and technological activities, and of formulating policies, programs and projects to support the national development.

One of the councils of the Department of Science and Technology is the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD). The PCAARRD formulates policies, plans and programs for science and technology based research and development (R&D) activities in agriculture, aquatic and natural resources sectors. It also allocates public and external funds for R&D as well as generates resources to support its program.  The PCAARRD is well linked to national, regional and international institutions. It was designated as the focal ICT training center for the Los Banos-based DOST community.The Philippines seems to have more ICT supported programs for extension than any other developing country, thanks due to government’s strong commitment and sustained support. Apparently, no comprehensive evaluation and impact assessment study for the ICT initiatives has yet been undertaken.

Major ICT based programs are as follows:

e-Extension Program of the Agricultural Training Center 

The e-Extension  program, which is operated sometimes in collaboration with other relevant public or private institutions, comprises the following three components:

  • E-Learning 
    It offers three kinds of courses: online, offline (for areas without connectivity) or blended (enhanced through face-to-face interaction or field activities). 
  • E-Farming
     It delivers farm and business advisory services on agriculture and fishery technologies and technical assistance to rural based organizations. A private company Optiserve Technologies Inc. collaborates in this activity (e.g. the Onion Production Resource Management System Project).
  • E-Trading
    This component facilitates online trading and provides marketing information.

Techno Gabay Program (TGP)

Techno Gabay Program of the government is a technical assistance program for the farmers involving public institutions, private sector, and the LGUs. The program is participatory, with the clientele in the field viewed as implementers and various government units as facilitators. The technology management service is the core of the program.

Farmers Information and Technology Services (FITS)

A FITS center is a telecenter, one-stop facility, where farmers can access the ICT based information and services in support of farming and marketing. The center offers not only pertinent information but also organizes necessary training for its clientele. A typical FITS center has seven databases namely: technology; experts’ profiles; farmers’ profiles; contact firms; trade and production statistics; publications; and technology video material. Financial sustainability of FITS centers is assured by the fact that each center is sponsored and/or hosted by an LGU, NGO or some other public, civil society or private institution. In March 2009, the Philippines had 500 FITS centers. The centers also involve “Farmer Scientists”.

Farmer Scientist Bureau (FSB) (also called as Magsasaka-Siyentista or MS)

The FSB comprises outstanding farmers who have demonstrated successful application of science and technology based as well as indigenous technologies to the farming. These farmers are not only active participants but also function as facilitators and initiators of technology transfer process. The FSB provides direct farmer-to-farmer extension services to other farmers, LGUs, cooperatives or private institutions.

Open Academy for Philippine Agriculture (OPAPA) (also called as Pinoy Farmers’ Internet)

The Open Academy for Philippine Agriculture (OPAPA) is a network of institutions that provides education, training, extension, and communication in agriculture, making information more accessible to those who need it. OPAPA aims at empowering the agriculture sector and agricultural extension system through ICTs. As such, it establishes a virtual network that provides information-on-demand, develops content based on farmers’ needs, and provides access through networks and the Internet. The OPAPA program develops ICT modalities to facilitate interaction among experts, farmers and extension workers despite the barriers imposed by physical distance. The Philippines Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) is currently the lead implementing agency of OPAPA.

OPAPA has the following goals:

  • Use ICT to provide online, web-based services to extension workers and farmers such as advisory, online training, distance learning, e-library, and knowledge databases in agriculture; 
  • Tap and optimize existing government ICT infrastructures and network backbones to provide an open learning environment; 
  • Organize expertise and digitize all available information, data, and knowledge in agriculture to make them accessible to farmers through the Open Academy; and 
  • Link policymakers, scientists, markets, business organizations, and farming communities in an open environment using ICTs.

Mobile Internet Bus

The mobile Internet Bus is equipped with laptops with the Internet, DVDs, LCDs and public address equipment. The bus can be driven to rural areas to provide digital information and material to the farmers. The staff riding the bus can also hold discussions with the farmers.

Farmers’ Text Center (also called as Smart Farmer Call Center)  

Farmers use their cellular phones for sending text messages to the subject-matter specialists based at the Philippines Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). The contact number is 700-7423 (PA-LAY). According to a three-level response mechanism installed, all text messages first pass through Level I for classification by a text center staff. At this level, a response to the farmer’s query is sent within 24 hours. If the query is of more technical nature, it is classified as Level II, and passed on to a specialist who personally replies through a text message, e-mail, or phone call. If the query is of a type which cannot be satisfactorily answered online then it is raised to Level III, meaning either a field visit will be scheduled by a specialist or the query will be referred to an appropriate institution. Apparently, even in areas without telephone lines and Internet connection, the farmers can still be connected using Wi-Fi services. Farmers’ cooperatives are using this service to obtain real-time marketing information.

School on the Air (SOA)

This program makes use of radio, Internet and text messaging on rice technologies. The Pampanga Agricultural College, one of the pilot sites of OPAPA has adopted the SOA modality.

The PCAARRD Portal

The PCAARRD Portal on the Internet has a lot of information on technologies useful for farmers, fishermen, marketing people, extension staff, researchers, students and other stakeholders. Some of the specific information categories are as follows:

Rural and Development Information System (RDMIS): It is web-based information system of new, ongoing, completed, approved and evaluated projects monitored by PCAARRD. 

Research Information Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES): It is a web-enabled bibliographic database on completed research projects, theses, dissertations and other relevant literature. 

Micro Small Medium Scale Enterprise IS (MSMSE): The database on MSMSE is available to PCAARRD and Regional Consortia.

Agriculture and Natural Resources Information Network (AGRINET): The database is meant for enhancement of inter-connectivity for sustained e-based agriculture, forestry and natural resources.

Commodity Information Network (CIN):  It is a very useful system that carries separate information networks for a number of major commodities such as follows. 

Resources

Resources and References

Araullo, D.B. (2006).Agricultural Cooperatives in the Philippines. Paper presented in the 2006 FFTC-NACF International Seminar on Agricultural Cooperatives in Asia: Innovations and opportunities in the 21st Century, held at Seoul, South Korea; 11-15 September, 2006.

Aro-Esquejo, E. (2008). Innovative ICT Approaches for Rural Development: A Case in the Philippines. Paper presented at the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Workshop on Innovative Agricultural Technology Transfer and Extension System for Enhancing Productivity and Competitiveness in APEC Member Economies, held at Seoul, Republic of Korea; July 1-3, 2008.

Bohol Integrated Development Foundation & JICA (2012). Directory of Philippine NGOs and Development Organizations

Bunescu, L. (2009). Day 3-the Philippines study visit. Blog published in Telecentre Europe; 

Carating, R.B., M. Fernando and S.Q. Tejada (August 2010). The Philippines Agricultural Extension System: A Look at the Bureau of Soils and Water Management’s Organic Fertilizer Production Project as a Sample Extension Delivery under the National Rice Program. Philippine Country Paper presented at the Workshop on Rural Development for High Level Officers of the AFACI Member Countries, held at Suwon, Republic of Korea; August 7-14, 2010.

Cardenas, V.R. (no date). Professionalizing Philippine Extension: The Philippine Extension Network (PEN) Experience. A PowerPoint pdf document;

European Commission (2007). The EC-Philippines Strategy Paper 2007-2013.

Faylon, P.S. and D.P.A. Delfino (2003). ICT in Agriculture & Natural Resources Research and Development: Status and Progress in the Philippines. PowerPoint presentation made in the APARIS ICT Workshop, organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), held at the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok; 1-3 December, 2003. 

Jones, A.M. (no date). Aid trends in a middle-income country: The Philippines case;

Lumbo, S.G., M.Y.A.M. Declaro, L.L. Bautista, E.G. Ruedas and V.S. Casanova (1996). The sustainable agricultural development extension program (SADEP): Enhancing health, education, livelihood and protection (HELP) of the environment in Occidental Mindoro, Philippines. Proceedings of the 4th Asian Rural Sociological Association (ARSA) International Conference; Pp. 196-204.

Mappala, P.M.G. (2009). ICT Initiatives of the Philippines for Sustained Agricultural Development: The e-Extension Program for Agriculture and Fisheries. PowerPoint presentation made for the WITFOR 2009 Agriculture Commission. 

OPAPA (Open Academy for Philippine Agriculture) (no date). ICT Solutions for Effective Delivery of Agricultural Contents: The OPAPA Experience. A PowerPoint document; 

Stads, G.J., P.S. Faylon and L.J. Buendia (May 2007). Agricultural R&D in the Philippines: Policy, Investments and Institutional Profile. ASTI (The Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators) Country Report. International Food Policy Research Institute and Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development.

Tenorio, M.A. and T.M. Aganon (2003). Philippines Country Paper, presented in the APO Seminar on Enhancement of Extension Systems in Agriculture, held in Faisalabad, Pakistan, 15-20 December 2003; in V.P. Sharma (Ed.2006). Enhancement of Extension Systems in Agriculture. Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organization; also available on the Internet as APO e-Book at URL www.apo-tokyo.org

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (September 2012)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson