iranIran is a West Asian country with a unique location linking it geographically to western, central and southern Asia. The Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman border Iran in the south and the Caspian Sea in the north. Iran’s capital is Tehran. The population of this oil- and natural gas-rich country was about 75 million in 2011.  Iran is divided into 31 provinces, which are further divided into counties, and sub-divided into districts and sub-districts. The country’s terrain is mountainous. The northern part has rain forests while the eastern part is covered by a large desert and a few salt lakes. Coastline areas of the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman constitute plains. The climate of Iran is mostly arid or semi-arid, with tropical climate dominant along the Caspian coast and the rain forests in the north. Winters are bitter in the western areas with heavy snowfall on higher altitudes.

Context

Context

The agriculture sector contributes 10 percent to the national GDP and employs about 30 percent of the population. Wheat crop covers more than half of the cultivable land. Rice and barley are also grown as major crops. Other crops, including vegetables and fruits, are cotton, sugarcane, sugar beets, tea, tobacco, potatoes, dates, figs, pistachios, walnuts and almonds. Among livestock, sheep are most popular, with other animals being goats, cattle, donkeys, horses and water buffalo. Fishery is concentrated mainly along the Caspian coast, while shrimp farming is done in salty marshes of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

Most farms are smaller than 10 hectares. Agricultural development is constrained by water scarcity due to low rainfall and poor irrigation system, as well as the lack of public and private investment, land tenure disputes, traditional cultivation practices, and excessive use of chemical fertilizers, plus two-third of the arable land is not under cultivation.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

485,150

29.79

17,205,000

10.56

0.23

2009

2009

2009

2009

2009

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

69.67

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

10.21

109.34

6.17

15.35

2007

2010

2010

2010

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

4,520

2009

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

85.01

98.51

98.78

99.72

85.85

2008

2008

2008

2008

2010

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

74.92

21

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

74,798,599

45.42

23,126,081

30.91

21.29

25,251,669

6,553,000

25.95

46.49

2011

2010

2011

2011

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Sources:The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO 

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (November 2012)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

 

Add comment


Security code
Refresh