armeniaArmenia is a Eurasian country located in the South Caucasus region. Its population is about three million, and the name of its capital is Yerevan. Although situated between the Black and Caspian Seas, Armenia is a landlocked country. It is administratively divided into 10 provinces (marz). Each province comprises one or more settlements, which are classified as either towns or villages. The total number of rural and urban communities is about 915. Armenia inherited centralized planning and state-owned large farms from the Soviet-era, but since gaining independence in 1991, it has undertaken major reforms towards privatization of land and market liberalization, earning appreciation and receiving assistance from international development institutions. 

Context

Context

The climate of Armenia is continental, with dry summers but moderate temperatures. As the country is mountainous, with an average altitude of 1,800 meters above sea level, it has relatively long autumns and snow-filled winters. According to an estimate, more than 88 percent of farmers cultivate farms of less than two-hectare size although the average size could differ from region to region. Crops include wheat, barley, oats, beans, tobacco, potato, cabbage, tomato, onion, cotton, flax, hemp, hook and alfalfa.  Fruits grown are grapes, apricot, apples, peach, plum, pear, walnut and some others. Lately, many farmers have been following organic farming. Viticulture is of great importance for Armenia because brandy and wine prepared from its special quality grape varieties are in great demand internationally. Livestock-raising is popular in all villages and covers cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses. Water sources for irrigation of crops include rivers, lakes and underground water. Annual rainfall varies from 250 mm in arid regions to 1,000 mm in the highlands.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

17,106

60.06

430,200

15.10

0.14

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

29.17

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

20.47

116.28

19.23

19.75

2012

2012

2012

2012

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

3720

2012

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

99.55

99.82

99.69

100.13

102.29

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

103.56

32

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)

2,969,081

104.07

1,064,012

35.83

N.A.

1,384,754

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

2012

2011

2012

2012

2011

Sources: The World Bank

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (July 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

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