uzbekistanUzbekistan is a landlocked country located in Central Asia. It was a part of the Soviet Union until 1991 and then became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Uzbekistan’s population is about 29 million people, and about 64 percent of these lives in rural areas. The name of the capital is Tashkent.  Uzbekistan is a large, mostly desert and mountainous country, and only about 10 percent of its land is utilized for irrigated agriculture. Besides being a major cotton growing country, Uzbekistan is rich in gold, uranium, coal, copper, silver and natural gas reserves. The country is administratively divided into 12 provinces, which are subdivided into districts. Uzbekistan’s climate is continental, with scant rainfall. Its summers are hot and winters are bitter.

Context

Context

The re-structuring of large collective and state farms has led to the creation of private farms and the expansion of small household plots, which are now responsible for much of the agricultural output. In 2009, the agricultural sector contributed 20 percent, value added,  to the national GDP and employed about 26 percent of the country’s labor force. All the land in Uzbekistan belongs to the state. Farmers lease land and are considered as state employees. Most state enterprises, including agriculture, are registered as national holding or joint stock companies. Uzbekistan is the world’s fifth largest producer of cotton and second largest exporter of this commodity. In 2006, cotton accounted for 17 percent of the country’s exports. Main cereal crops are wheat, barley, maize and rice, grown in intensively irrigated valleys and oases. Other crops are sesame, onions, flax, and tobacco. Uzbek melons are very popular in the region and dry fruits are also exported.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

26,660

62.67

4,300,000

10.10

0.14

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

193.29

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

18.89

136.56

NA

NA

2011

2011

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

1510

2011

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

99.38

99.98

99.88

100.09

97.85

2010

2010

2010

2010

2011

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

91.64

30.2

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

29,341,200

68.97

18,705,601

63.75

20.04

12,737,390

2,705,000

21.23

43.47

2011

2011

2011

2011

2010

2011

2010

2010

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

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Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (April 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

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