kyrgystanKyrgyzstan, officially known as the Kyrgyz Republic, is a Central Asian country. Its capital is Bishkek, and the population is about 5.5 million. Kyrgyzstan, which once was a part of the Soviet Union Socialist Republic, is presently a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The landlocked country has sharp mountains and glaciers, and is very rich in water resources. All of its rivers end up in a closed drainage without reaching any sea. Kyrgyzstan has a huge mountain lake called Issyk-Kul. The country is known to have significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals, but is economically rated as one of the poorest countries in the region.

title=Context

Context

Kyrgyzstan is administratively divided into seven provinces (oblast) each governed by government-appointed governors. There are several districts (rayon) in each province, which are administered by government-appointed akims. Rural communities comprising up to 20 settlements have their elected mayors and councils. 

Various regions of Kyrgyzstan have different climates, ranging from sub-tropical to temperate to severe winter, depending on their location and altitude. Only about 7 percent of Kyrgyzstan’s land is arable and about 70 percent of which depends on irrigation for agricultural operations. The re-distribution and privatization of state and collective farms to form peasant enterprises, and cooperatives or peasant associations started around 1992 after the end of the Soviet era although at a slow pace due to differing internal political views regarding the land reform options. Later, in 1995, this process was replaced by the offer of debt relief to the state and collective farms, leading to faster availability of land to private farmers. All citizens have right to have a garden plot while only rural residents have the right to occupy the re-distributed pieces of the state and collective farms. In 1997, average size of arable land holdings was 0.11 hectares of peasant farms 2.9 hectares of private farmers, and 58.9 hectares of state and collective farms. The private farms proved to be the most productive.

Wheat is the major grain crop, while sugar beet, tobacco and cotton are the main cash crops. Other crops include fodder cops, barley, maize, potatoes, tomatoes and fruits. As livestock remains a dominant economic sub-sector in Kyrgyzstan since the Soviet era, pastures are an essential part of rearing sheep, goats, horses, pigs, yaks and cattle.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

106,085

55.31

1,275,900

6.65

0.23

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

21.02

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

18.62

109.25

25.81

16.61

2011

2011

2011

2011

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

900

2011

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

99.24

99.79

99.70

100.09

99.55

2009

2009

2009

2009

2011

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

116.40

20

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

5,514,600

28.75

3,563,005

64.61

20.14

2,576,965

510,000

19.79

29.80

2011

2011

2011

2011

2010

2011

2010

2010

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (May 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

 

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