kazakhstanKazakhstan is a country located both in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It is ninth largest country in the world in terms of its land area, and was the last among the Soviet republics to declare independence, in 1991. The capital of Kazakhstan is Astana, and the largest city Almaty. The population of Kazakhstan is estimated at 16.455 million (2011), of which 46% is rural and 54% is urban, and highly diverse in terms of ethnicities. The population density, however, is less than 15 people per square mile. Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces (oblıstar). The provinces are sub-divided into districts (awdandar). Almaty, Astana and Baikonur cities are not part of any province as they enjoy a special status. The country’s climate comprises warm summers and colder winters, and the precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions.

Context

Context

Kazakhstan is a resource-rich country. The most significant contributors to the national economy are oil and natural gas. Other exports include wheat (seventh largest producer of wheat in the world with yearly harvest of about15 million tons), textiles, livestock, and lately uranium. In 2007, the agriculture sector accounted for 5.82 percent of the GDP. Agricultural land occupies more than 23 million hectares, about 68 percent of which is considered as pasture and hay land. Main livestock products are dairy goods, leather, meat, and wool. Major products include wheat, barley, cotton, rice and poultry.

About half of the population is involved in agriculture. According to the Agricultural Register of the National Statistics Office, the 2003 data show the number of agricultural enterprise as 4,492, covering total of 11,900,000 hectares of arable land; the number of family farms are about 121,500 covering a total of 9,000,000 hectares; and household plots are about 1,831,600 covering a total of 250,000 hectares.

The privatization has doubled the number of family farms in 2003 as compared to that in 1998 and the arable land possessed by them has gone up from 19 percent to 42 percent. In 2003, family farms were producing 48 percent of the total agricultural output, including 26 percent of crop products and 87 percent of livestock products. These figures indicate rising number and importance of small farmers as potential target group for extension program planning purposes.

Some of the donors presently active in Kazakhstan include World Bank, FAO (mostly through regional projects and programs), UNDP, European Union, USAID, Asian Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, and GTZ. The World Bank-financed Agricultural Competitiveness Project is the most relevant in terms of building the extension service of Kazakhstan.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

2,084,800

77.22

23,400,000

8.66

1.45

2009

2009

2009

2009

2009

Fertilizer consumption (Kg per hectare of arable land)

2.41

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

5.26

109.59

3.81

8.50

2011

2010

2009

2009

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

8220

2011

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

99.67

99.85

99.77

100.08

97.33

2009

2009

2009

2009

2011

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

19,402,600

33.38

2010

2010

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population**

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

16,558,459

6.04

6,774,164

41.5

15.11

12,522,000

1,192,000

9.51

24.16

2011

2010

2010

2010

2010

2012 (February)

2010

2010

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO,  ** LABORSTA

 

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Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (August 2012)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson
  • The latest information on human resources in agricultural extension in Kazakhstan has been provided by Talgat Absattar, Head of Extension Department, JSC, KazAgroInnovation, Astana, Kazakhstan 

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