philippinesThe Philippines is an archipelago Southeast Asian country comprising 7,107 islands located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country is prone to frequent earthquakes and typhoons due to its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. Its islands enjoy vast natural resources and very high levels of biodiversity. The population of the Philippines is 94,852,030 (2011), growing at a rate of 1.8 percent per year. Philippines’ capital is Manila.

Context

Context

The country is divided into three island groups namely Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The island groups are divided into 16 regions, which are sub-divided into 79 provinces. Within all the provinces are 114 cities, 1,496 municipalities, and 41,939 barangays (smallest administrative divisions). Most of the mountainous islands are covered by tropical rainforest. The climate is tropical, warm and humid with distinct dry season (November to May) and wet season (June to October). Mismanagement, environmental pollution and high population are the cause of widespread poverty. The Asian financial crisis of 1997alsoaffected the Philippines economy.

Although the Philippines is gradually transforming  into an industrialized nation yet, basically, it is still an agricultural country, with about one third of its population living in rural areas. The agriculture sector comprises farming, fisheries, forestry and livestock. It employs close to 39.8 percent of the country’s work force, and its contribution to the GDP is about 20 percent. The sector has suffered from low public investment, especially in the area of irrigation systems, sustained low productivity levels, costly farm inputs, and lately increased frequency of typhoons and flooding. Such problems and lucrative prices being offered by real estate developers has tempted a large number of poor farmers into selling their cultivable lands, which have been converted into golf courses, resorts and building complexes. Deforestation and excessive application of chemical farm inputs have caused environment problems. The government has tried to modernize the agriculture sector through the Agricultural Fisheries Modernization Act (1997) and the Medium Term Agricultural Development Plan (2001-2004).

The usual size of landholding is about 2.16 hectares, which has been declining in recent years. Crops, fruits, vegetables, poultry and swine are common features of farms. Main crops are rice, corn, coconut, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple, coffee, mangoes, tobacco, and abaca, and the secondary crops include peanut, cassava, camote, garlic, onion, cabbage, eggplant, calamansi, rubber, and cotton. Commercial agriculture operated by large plantations covers coconuts, copra, sugarcane, tobacco, bananas and pineapples. Major agricultural and fishery exports comprise coconut oil, bananas, pineapple, tuna, seaweed and prawns.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

119,500

40.07

5,400,000

18.11

0.05

2009

2009

2009

2009

2009

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

140.47

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

13.03

111.71

7.35

11.09

2011

2010

2010

2010

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

2210

2011

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

95.42

98.49

97.01

101.51

108.29

2008

2008

2008

2008

2009

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

85.66

25

2010

2010

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population**

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

94,852,030

312.77

31,335,628

33.03

32.95

38,893,000

13,404,000

34.46

24.17

2011

2011

2010

2011

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Sources:The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO,  ; National Statistics Office, Labor Force Survey, Public Files 

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (September 2012)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

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