pakistanPakistan is located at the strategically important crossroads of South Asia, Central Asia and Western Asia regions. It has a 650 miles coastline. The country is divided into five provinces and some federally administered areas. The provinces are divided into devolved districts, tehsils and union councils administered by the local government. Its population is about 187 million (2010).

Pakistan’s climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid conditions in the coastal south. The country has coastal, desert, plain and mountainous regions. There is a monsoon season with heavy rainfall. Temperatures are quite high during the summer.

Context

Context

Agriculture sector is of great importance even though yields have been steadily declining. Livestock sector’s contribution to the GDP is 11 percent, which is higher than that of crops. Pakistan is the fourth largest milk producing country in the world. Fisheries and fishery industry are also important for the national economy. Food processing industries utilize most of the agricultural output. Majority of the farmers are subsistence, but large farms also exist. The main crops are wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane and cotton; cotton and rice are main exports. Key fruits include citrus (kinnu), mango, apricot, apple and dates.

Pakistan has an impressive irrigation system comprising rivers, canals and groundwater. Its infrastructure, however, lacks proper maintenance. Land degradation due to salinity and water logging is a persistent problem. Rain-fed agriculture needs proper technology. Land tenure issues remain complex. The private sector has active business of seed, pesticides and fertilizers.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

262800

34.09

20430000

26.50

0.11

2009

2009

2009

2009

2009

Fertilizer consumption (Kg per hectare of arable land)

217.23

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

21.17

115

16.79

13.08

2010

2009

2010

2010

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

1050

2010

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

55.52

61.24

79.42

77.12

75.58

2008

2008

2008

2008

2010

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

57.13

16.78

2010

2010

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population*

Rural population (% of total population)*

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of  total economically active population in agriculture)*

173,593,383

225.18

111,281,000

64.10

0.42

24,520,000

39.54

9.95

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Sources: The World Bank, *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (June 2012)
  • Edited by Burt E. Swanson

 

 

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