azerbaijanAzerbaijan, officially known as the Republic of Azerbaijan, is the largest country in the Caucasus region, located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe. It was a part of Soviet Union until its independence in 1991, and is now a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The country borders Caspian Sea on the eastern side. Azerbaijan’s population is about 9 million, and the name of the capital city is Baku. Not long ago, the country had a war with the neighboring Armenia which not only displaced a large number of people but also slowed down the pace of development.

Context

Context

Azerbaijan is administratively divided into 10 economic regions, 66 districts (rayons) and 77 cities (sahar). Mountains occupy about half of the country although there are vast flat lands in the central region. Also present are mountain ranges and thousands of small and big rivers. About 18 percent of the country lies below sea level. Azerbaijan has three types of climate: temperate in the southeast along the coastline; temperate dry in the center and northeast; and cold in the rest of the country.

The agricultural sector of Azerbaijan, the second most important natural resource after oil, is highly diversified due to varying topography. Major food crops include wheat, barley, vegetables, grapes and other fruits, while the main cash crops are cotton and tobacco. Livestock constitute an important economic sub-sector. The agricultural land comprises, besides forests, cropland, pastures, and rangeland. Rainfall is low and most of the cultivated land is irrigated. Average size of individual land holdings is 3 to 5 hectares. The agricultural sector accounted for about 20 percent of the national GDP between 1997 and 2001, but then it started declining. The deteriorating irrigation infrastructure, soil fertility depletion, erosion, salinity and pollution reduced the agriculture’s contribution to GDP to just 5.2 percent in 2010. While the government continues to own most of the pasture land, small-scale farmers now produce more than 90 percent of the agricultural output.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

47,668

57.69

1,885,700

22.81

0.20

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

13.41

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

5.75

130.21

2.69

14.10

2011

2011

2011

2011

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

5290

2011

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

99.75

99.94

99.95

99.98

97.95

2009

2009

2009

2009

2011

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

108.74

50

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

9,173,082

110.97

4,252,200

46.35

22.79

4,705,374

1,085,000

23.05

53.36

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

2010

2011

2011

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (June 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

 

Add comment


Security code
Refresh